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dc.contributor.authorMcCarthy, Arlie
dc.contributor.authorPeck, Lloyd S
dc.contributor.authorAldridge, David
dc.date.accessioned2022-01-20T00:31:05Z
dc.date.available2022-01-20T00:31:05Z
dc.date.issued2022-01-18
dc.identifier.issn0027-8424
dc.identifier.urihttps://www.repository.cam.ac.uk/handle/1810/332804
dc.description.abstractAntarctica, an isolated and long considered pristine wilderness, is becoming increasingly exposed to the negative effects of ship-borne human activity, and especially the introduction of invasive species. Here, we provide a comprehensive quantitative analysis of ship movements into Antarctic waters and a spatially explicit assessment of introduction risk for nonnative marine species in all Antarctic waters. We show that vessels traverse Antarctica's isolating natural barriers, connecting it directly via an extensive network of ship activity to all global regions, especially South Atlantic and European ports. Ship visits are more than seven times higher to the Antarctic Peninsula (especially east of Anvers Island) and the South Shetland Islands than elsewhere around Antarctica, together accounting for 88% of visits to Southern Ocean ecoregions. Contrary to expectations, we show that while the five recognized "Antarctic Gateway cities" are important last ports of call, especially for research and tourism vessels, an additional 53 ports had vessels directly departing to Antarctica from 2014 to 2018. We identify ports outside Antarctica where biosecurity interventions could be most effectively implemented and the most vulnerable Antarctic locations where monitoring programs for high-risk invaders should be established.
dc.format.mediumPrint
dc.publisherNational Academy of Sciences
dc.rightsAttribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International
dc.rights.urihttps://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/
dc.subjectanthropogenic impacts
dc.subjectbiofouling
dc.subjectmarine conservation
dc.subjecttraffic networks
dc.titleShip traffic connects Antarctica's fragile coasts to worldwide ecosystems.
dc.typeArticle
dc.publisher.departmentDepartment of Zoology Student
dc.publisher.departmentDepartment of Zoology
dc.date.updated2022-01-19T10:04:03Z
prism.endingPagee2110303118
prism.issueIdentifier3
prism.publicationDate2022
prism.publicationNameProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of USA
prism.startingPagee2110303118
prism.volume119
dc.identifier.doi10.17863/CAM.80237
dcterms.dateAccepted2021-11-01
rioxxterms.versionofrecord10.1073/pnas.2110303118
rioxxterms.versionVoR
dc.contributor.orcidMcCarthy, Arlie [0000-0001-7423-4342]
dc.contributor.orcidAldridge, David [0000-0001-9067-8592]
dc.identifier.eissn1091-6490
rioxxterms.typeJournal Article/Review
cam.issuedOnline2022-01-10
cam.depositDate2022-01-19
pubs.licence-identifierapollo-deposit-licence-2-1
pubs.licence-display-nameApollo Repository Deposit Licence Agreement


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Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International
Except where otherwise noted, this item's licence is described as Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International