A systematic review of the prevalence, risk factors and screening tools for autonomic and diabetic peripheral neuropathy in children, adolescents and young adults with type 1 diabetes.
Di Candia, Francesca
Rosanio, Francesco Maria
Piona, Claudia Anita
Springer Science and Business Media LLC
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Franceschi, R., Mozzillo, E., Di Candia, F., Rosanio, F. M., Leonardi, L., Liguori, A., Micheli, F., et al. (2022). A systematic review of the prevalence, risk factors and screening tools for autonomic and diabetic peripheral neuropathy in children, adolescents and young adults with type 1 diabetes.. Acta Diabetol https://doi.org/10.1007/s00592-022-01850-x
AIMS: We aimed to estimate the prevalence of Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) and Cardiac autonomic neuropathy (CAN) in youth with type 1 diabetes; identify key risk factors; identify the most useful tests for the diagnostic evaluation of DPN and CAN; identify key treatment options for DPN and CAN. METHODS: A systematic search was performed including studies published in the last 15 years. PICO framework was used in the selection process and evidence was assessed using the GRADE system. RESULTS: A total of 758 studies were identified and a final number of 49 studies were included in this systematic review. According to moderate-high level quality studies, the prevalence of probable DPN, ranged between 13.5 and 62%; subclinical DPN between 22 and 88%; confirmed DPN between 2.6 and 11%. The Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument was the tool with higher sensitivity and specificity for detecting DPN, which needs to be confirmed by nerve conduction velocity. The prevalence of CAN was 4-39%. Specific treatment options for DPN or CAN in patients younger than 25 years are not available. Key risk factors for DPN and CAN are hyperglycemia/HbA1c, age, diabetes duration, the presence of other microvascular complications, waist/height ratio, lipid profile and blood pressure. For CAN, additional risk factors were cigarette smoking, BMI and total daily insulin. CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence of neuropathy in youth with type 1 diabetes varies depending on different screening methods and characteristics of the study populations. However, the assessed studies confirmed a relatively high prevalence of subclinical neuropathy, reiterating the importance of early identification of risk factors to prevent this complication.
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External DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00592-022-01850-x
This record's URL: https://www.repository.cam.ac.uk/handle/1810/332963
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