Florigen and its homologs of FT/CETS/PEBP/RKIP/YbhB family may be the enzymes of small molecule metabolism: review of the evidence.

Tsoy, Olga 

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BACKGROUND: Flowering signals are sensed in plant leaves and transmitted to the shoot apical meristems, where the formation of flowers is initiated. Searches for a diffusible hormone-like signaling entity ("florigen") went on for many decades, until a product of plant gene FT was identified as the key component of florigen in the 1990s, based on the analysis of mutants, genetic complementation evidence, and protein and RNA localization studies. Sequence homologs of FT protein are found throughout prokaryotes and eukaryotes; some eukaryotic family members appear to bind phospholipids or interact with the components of the signal transduction cascades. Most FT homologs are known to share a constellation of five charged residues, three of which, i.e., two histidines and an aspartic acid, are located at the rim of a well-defined cavity on the protein surface. RESULTS: We studied molecular features of the FT homologs in prokaryotes and analyzed their genome context, to find tentative evidence connecting the bacterial FT homologs with small molecule metabolism, often involving substrates that contain sugar or ribonucleoside moieties. We argue that the unifying feature of this protein family, i.e., a set of charged residues conserved at the sequence and structural levels, is more likely to be an enzymatic active center than a catalytically inert ligand-binding site. CONCLUSIONS: We propose that most of FT-related proteins are enzymes operating on small diffusible molecules. Those metabolites may constitute an overlooked essential ingredient of the florigen signal.

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Review, Florigen, Flowering, Phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein, Raf-kinase interacting protein, YbhB, Tautomycin
Journal Title
BMC Plant Biol
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Springer Science and Business Media LLC
National Science Foundation (IRD and LTPD programs)
Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung (01ZX1908A)