Answering some questions about structured illumination microscopy.
Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci
The Royal Society
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Manton, J. (2022). Answering some questions about structured illumination microscopy.. [Other]. https://doi.org/10.1098/rsta.2021.0109
Structured illumination microscopy (SIM) provides images of fluorescent objects at an enhanced resolution greater than that of conventional epifluorescence wide-field microscopy. Initially demonstrated in 1999 to enhance the lateral resolution twofold, it has since been extended to enhance axial resolution twofold (2008), applied to live-cell imaging (2009) and combined with myriad other techniques, including interferometric detection (2008), confocal microscopy (2010) and light sheet illumination (2012). Despite these impressive developments, SIM remains, perhaps, the most poorly understood 'super-resolution' method. In this article, we provide answers to the 13 questions regarding SIM proposed by Prakash et al. along with answers to a further three questions. After providing a general overview of the technique and its developments, we explain why SIM as normally used is still diffraction-limited. We then highlight the necessity for a non-polynomial, and not just nonlinear, response to the illuminating light in order to make SIM a true, diffraction-unlimited, super-resolution technique. In addition, we present a derivation of a real-space SIM reconstruction approach that can be used to process conventional SIM and image scanning microscopy (ISM) data and extended to process data with quasi-arbitrary illumination patterns. Finally, we provide a simple bibliometric analysis of SIM development over the past two decades and provide a short outlook on potential future work. This article is part of the Theo Murphy meeting issue 'Super-resolution structured illumination microscopy (part 2)'.
ARTICLES, Discussion, structured illumination, super-resolution, extended-resolution, fluorescence
External DOI: https://doi.org/10.1098/rsta.2021.0109
This record's DOI: https://doi.org/10.17863/CAM.81410