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dc.contributor.authorCazzolla Gatti, Roberto
dc.contributor.authorReich, Peter B
dc.contributor.authorGamarra, Javier GP
dc.contributor.authorCrowther, Tom
dc.contributor.authorHui, Cang
dc.contributor.authorMorera, Albert
dc.contributor.authorBastin, Jean-Francois
dc.contributor.authorde-Miguel, Sergio
dc.contributor.authorNabuurs, Gert-Jan
dc.contributor.authorSvenning, Jens-Christian
dc.contributor.authorSerra-Diaz, Josep M
dc.contributor.authorMerow, Cory
dc.contributor.authorEnquist, Brian
dc.contributor.authorKamenetsky, Maria
dc.contributor.authorLee, Junho
dc.contributor.authorZhu, Jun
dc.contributor.authorFang, Jinyun
dc.contributor.authorJacobs, Douglass F
dc.contributor.authorPijanowski, Bryan
dc.contributor.authorBanerjee, Arindam
dc.contributor.authorGiaquinto, Robert A
dc.contributor.authorAlberti, Giorgio
dc.contributor.authorAlmeyda Zambrano, Angelica Maria
dc.contributor.authorAlvarez-Davila, Esteban
dc.contributor.authorAraujo-Murakami, Alejandro
dc.contributor.authorAvitabile, Valerio
dc.contributor.authorAymard, Gerardo A
dc.contributor.authorBalazy, Radomir
dc.contributor.authorBaraloto, Chris
dc.contributor.authorBarroso, Jorcely G
dc.contributor.authorBastian, Meredith L
dc.contributor.authorBirnbaum, Philippe
dc.contributor.authorBitariho, Robert
dc.contributor.authorBogaert, Jan
dc.contributor.authorBongers, Frans
dc.contributor.authorBouriaud, Olivier
dc.contributor.authorBrancalion, Pedro HS
dc.contributor.authorBrearley, Francis Q
dc.contributor.authorBroadbent, Eben North
dc.contributor.authorBussotti, Filippo
dc.contributor.authorCastro da Silva, Wendeson
dc.contributor.authorCésar, Ricardo Gomes
dc.contributor.authorČešljar, Goran
dc.contributor.authorChama Moscoso, Víctor
dc.contributor.authorChen, Han YH
dc.contributor.authorCienciala, Emil
dc.contributor.authorClark, Connie J
dc.contributor.authorCoomes, David
dc.contributor.authorDayanandan, Selvadurai
dc.contributor.authorDecuyper, Mathieu
dc.contributor.authorDee, Laura E
dc.contributor.authorDel Aguila Pasquel, Jhon
dc.contributor.authorDerroire, Géraldine
dc.contributor.authorDjuikouo, Marie Noel Kamdem
dc.contributor.authorVan Do, Tran
dc.contributor.authorDolezal, Jiri
dc.contributor.authorĐorđević, Ilija Đ
dc.contributor.authorEngel, Julien
dc.contributor.authorFayle, Tom M
dc.contributor.authorFeldpausch, Ted R
dc.contributor.authorFridman, Jonas K
dc.contributor.authorHarris, David J
dc.contributor.authorHemp, Andreas
dc.contributor.authorHengeveld, Geerten
dc.contributor.authorHerault, Bruno
dc.contributor.authorHerold, Martin
dc.contributor.authorIbanez, Thomas
dc.contributor.authorJagodzinski, Andrzej M
dc.contributor.authorJaroszewicz, Bogdan
dc.contributor.authorJeffery, Kathryn J
dc.contributor.authorJohannsen, Vivian Kvist
dc.contributor.authorJucker, Tommaso
dc.contributor.authorKangur, Ahto
dc.contributor.authorKarminov, Victor N
dc.contributor.authorKartawinata, Kuswata
dc.contributor.authorKennard, Deborah K
dc.contributor.authorKepfer-Rojas, Sebastian
dc.contributor.authorKeppel, Gunnar
dc.contributor.authorKhan, Mohammed Latif
dc.contributor.authorKhare, Pramod Kumar
dc.contributor.authorKileen, Timothy J
dc.contributor.authorKim, Hyun Seok
dc.contributor.authorKorjus, Henn
dc.contributor.authorKumar, Amit
dc.contributor.authorKumar, Ashwani
dc.contributor.authorLaarmann, Diana
dc.contributor.authorLabrière, Nicolas
dc.contributor.authorLang, Mait
dc.contributor.authorLewis, Simon L
dc.contributor.authorLukina, Natalia
dc.contributor.authorMaitner, Brian S
dc.contributor.authorMalhi, Yadvinder
dc.contributor.authorMarshall, Andrew R
dc.contributor.authorMartynenko, Olga V
dc.contributor.authorMonteagudo Mendoza, Abel L
dc.contributor.authorOntikov, Petr V
dc.contributor.authorOrtiz-Malavasi, Edgar
dc.contributor.authorPallqui Camacho, Nadir C
dc.contributor.authorPaquette, Alain
dc.contributor.authorPark, Minjee
dc.contributor.authorParthasarathy, Narayanaswamy
dc.contributor.authorPeri, Pablo Luis
dc.contributor.authorPetronelli, Pascal
dc.contributor.authorPfautsch, Sebastian
dc.contributor.authorPhillips, Oliver L
dc.contributor.authorPicard, Nicolas
dc.contributor.authorPiotto, Daniel
dc.contributor.authorPoorter, Lourens
dc.contributor.authorPoulsen, John R
dc.contributor.authorPretzsch, Hans
dc.contributor.authorRamírez-Angulo, Hirma
dc.contributor.authorRestrepo Correa, Zorayda
dc.contributor.authorRodeghiero, Mirco
dc.contributor.authorRojas Gonzáles, Rocío Del Pilar
dc.contributor.authorRolim, Samir G
dc.contributor.authorRovero, Francesco
dc.contributor.authorRutishauser, Ervan
dc.contributor.authorSaikia, Purabi
dc.contributor.authorSalas-Eljatib, Christian
dc.contributor.authorSchepaschenko, Dmitry
dc.contributor.authorScherer-Lorenzen, Michael
dc.contributor.authorŠebeň, Vladimír
dc.contributor.authorSilveira, Marcos
dc.contributor.authorSlik, Ferry
dc.contributor.authorSonké, Bonaventure
dc.contributor.authorSouza, Alexandre F
dc.contributor.authorStereńczak, Krzysztof Jan
dc.contributor.authorSvoboda, Miroslav
dc.contributor.authorTaedoumg, Hermann
dc.contributor.authorTchebakova, Nadja
dc.contributor.authorTerborgh, John
dc.contributor.authorTikhonova, Elena
dc.contributor.authorTorres-Lezama, Armando
dc.contributor.authorvan der Plas, Fons
dc.contributor.authorVásquez, Rodolfo
dc.contributor.authorViana, Helder
dc.contributor.authorVibrans, Alexander C
dc.contributor.authorVilanova, Emilio
dc.contributor.authorVos, Vincent A
dc.contributor.authorWang, Hua-Feng
dc.contributor.authorWesterlund, Bertil
dc.contributor.authorWhite, Lee JT
dc.contributor.authorWiser, Susan K
dc.contributor.authorZawiła-Niedźwiecki, Tomasz
dc.contributor.authorZemagho, Lise
dc.contributor.authorZhu, Zhi-Xin
dc.contributor.authorZo-Bi, Irié C
dc.contributor.authorLiang, Jingjing
dc.date.accessioned2022-03-02T00:30:28Z
dc.date.available2022-03-02T00:30:28Z
dc.date.issued2022-02-08
dc.identifier.issn0027-8424
dc.identifier.urihttps://www.repository.cam.ac.uk/handle/1810/334568
dc.description.abstractOne of the most fundamental questions in ecology is how many species inhabit the Earth. However, due to massive logistical and financial challenges and taxonomic difficulties connected to the species concept definition, the global numbers of species, including those of important and well-studied life forms such as trees, still remain largely unknown. Here, based on global ground-sourced data, we estimate the total tree species richness at global, continental, and biome levels. Our results indicate that there are ∼73,000 tree species globally, among which ∼9,000 tree species are yet to be discovered. Roughly 40% of undiscovered tree species are in South America. Moreover, almost one-third of all tree species to be discovered may be rare, with very low populations and limited spatial distribution (likely in remote tropical lowlands and mountains). These findings highlight the vulnerability of global forest biodiversity to anthropogenic changes in land use and climate, which disproportionately threaten rare species and thus, global tree richness.
dc.format.mediumPrint
dc.publisherProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
dc.rightsAttribution 4.0 International
dc.rights.urihttps://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
dc.subjectbiodiversity
dc.subjectforests
dc.subjecthyperdominance
dc.subjectrarity
dc.subjectrichness
dc.titleThe number of tree species on Earth.
dc.typeArticle
dc.publisher.departmentDepartment of Plant Sciences
dc.date.updated2022-02-28T14:07:15Z
prism.endingPagee2115329119
prism.issueIdentifier6
prism.publicationDate2022
prism.publicationNameProc Natl Acad Sci U S A
prism.startingPagee2115329119
prism.volume119
dc.identifier.doi10.17863/CAM.81987
dcterms.dateAccepted2021-12-07
rioxxterms.versionofrecord10.1073/pnas.2115329119
rioxxterms.versionVoR
dc.contributor.orcidCazzolla Gatti, Roberto [0000-0001-5130-8492]
dc.contributor.orcidReich, Peter B [0000-0003-4424-662X]
dc.contributor.orcidHui, Cang [0000-0002-3660-8160]
dc.contributor.orcidMorera, Albert [0000-0002-6777-169X]
dc.contributor.orcidde-Miguel, Sergio [0000-0002-9738-0657]
dc.contributor.orcidSvenning, Jens-Christian [0000-0002-3415-0862]
dc.contributor.orcidSerra-Diaz, Josep M [0000-0003-1988-1154]
dc.contributor.orcidAlberti, Giorgio [0000-0003-2422-3009]
dc.contributor.orcidBongers, Frans [0000-0002-8431-6189]
dc.contributor.orcidBouriaud, Olivier [0000-0002-8046-466X]
dc.contributor.orcidBrancalion, Pedro HS [0000-0001-8245-4062]
dc.contributor.orcidCésar, Ricardo Gomes [0000-0002-3392-8089]
dc.contributor.orcidChen, Han YH [0000-0001-9477-5541]
dc.contributor.orcidCienciala, Emil [0000-0002-1254-4254]
dc.contributor.orcidCoomes, David [0000-0002-8261-2582]
dc.contributor.orcidDjuikouo, Marie Noel Kamdem [0000-0003-0064-5151]
dc.contributor.orcidVan Do, Tran [0000-0001-9059-5842]
dc.contributor.orcidFeldpausch, Ted R [0000-0002-6631-7962]
dc.contributor.orcidJaroszewicz, Bogdan [0000-0002-2042-8245]
dc.contributor.orcidJeffery, Kathryn J [0000-0002-2632-0008]
dc.contributor.orcidKennard, Deborah K [0000-0003-4842-8260]
dc.contributor.orcidKim, Hyun Seok [0000-0002-3440-6071]
dc.contributor.orcidLabrière, Nicolas [0000-0002-8037-2001]
dc.contributor.orcidMaitner, Brian S [0000-0002-2118-9880]
dc.contributor.orcidMalhi, Yadvinder [0000-0002-3503-4783]
dc.contributor.orcidPeri, Pablo Luis [0000-0002-5398-4408]
dc.contributor.orcidPhillips, Oliver L [0000-0002-8993-6168]
dc.contributor.orcidPoorter, Lourens [0000-0003-1391-4875]
dc.contributor.orcidPoulsen, John R [0000-0002-1532-9808]
dc.contributor.orcidSalas-Eljatib, Christian [0000-0002-8468-0829]
dc.contributor.orcidSchepaschenko, Dmitry [0000-0002-7814-4990]
dc.contributor.orcidSilveira, Marcos [0000-0003-0485-7872]
dc.contributor.orcidSlik, Ferry [0000-0003-3988-7019]
dc.contributor.orcidSonké, Bonaventure [0000-0002-4310-3603]
dc.contributor.orcidTerborgh, John [0000-0003-1853-8311]
dc.contributor.orcidWiser, Susan K [0000-0002-8938-8181]
dc.contributor.orcidLiang, Jingjing [0000-0001-9439-9320]
dc.identifier.eissn1091-6490
rioxxterms.typeJournal Article/Review
cam.issuedOnline2022-01-31
cam.depositDate2022-02-28
pubs.licence-identifierapollo-deposit-licence-2-1
pubs.licence-display-nameApollo Repository Deposit Licence Agreement


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Attribution 4.0 International
Except where otherwise noted, this item's licence is described as Attribution 4.0 International