Function of the Nuclear Transport Machinery in Maintaining the Distinctive Compositions of the Nucleus and Cytoplasm.
Int J Mol Sci
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Stewart, M. (2022). Function of the Nuclear Transport Machinery in Maintaining the Distinctive Compositions of the Nucleus and Cytoplasm.. Int J Mol Sci, 23 (5) https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23052578
Although the separation of transcription and translation, mediated by the nuclear envelope, is the defining characteristic of Eukaryotes, the barrier between the nuclear and cytoplasmic compartments needs to be semipermeable to enable material to be moved between them. Moreover, each compartment needs to have a distinctive complement of macromolecules to mediate specific functions and so movement between them needs to be controlled. This is achieved through the selective active transport of macromolecules through the nuclear pores that stud the nuclear envelope, and which serve as a conduit between these compartments. Nuclear pores are huge cylindrical macromolecular assemblies and are constructed from the order of 30 different proteins called nucleoporins. Nuclear pores have a central transport channel that is filled with a dense network of natively unfolded portions of many different nuclear pore proteins (nucleoporins or nups). This network generates a barrier that impedes, but does not entirely prevent, the diffusion of many macromolecules through the pores. The rapid movement of a range of proteins and RNAs through the pores is mediated by a range of transport factors that bind their cargo in one compartment and release it in the other. However, although as their size increases the diffusion of macromolecules through nuclear pores is progressively impaired, additional mechanisms, including the binding of some macromolecules to immobile components of each compartment and also the active removal of macromolecules from the inappropriate compartment, are needed to fully maintain the distinctive compositions of each compartment.
nuclear pore, nuclear transport, nucleoporin, thermal ratchet
Medical Research Council (MC-A025-5PL41)
External DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23052578
This record's URL: https://www.repository.cam.ac.uk/handle/1810/334588