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dc.contributor.authorBüntgen, Ulf
dc.contributor.authorPiermattei, Alma
dc.contributor.authorKrusic, Paul J
dc.contributor.authorEsper, Jan
dc.contributor.authorSparks, Tim
dc.contributor.authorCrivellaro, Alan
dc.date.accessioned2022-03-06T02:03:43Z
dc.date.available2022-03-06T02:03:43Z
dc.date.issued2022-02-09
dc.identifier.issn0962-8452
dc.identifier.otherPMC8808087
dc.identifier.other35105239
dc.identifier.urihttps://www.repository.cam.ac.uk/handle/1810/334714
dc.description.abstractGlobal temperatures are rising at an unprecedented rate, but environmental responses are often difficult to recognize and quantify. Long-term observations of plant phenology, the annually recurring sequence of plant developmental stages, can provide sensitive measures of climate change and important information for ecosystem services. Here, we present 419 354 recordings of the first flowering date from 406 plant species in the UK between 1753 and 2019 CE. Community-wide first flowering advanced by almost one month on average when comparing all observations before and after 1986 (p < 0.0001). The mean first flowering time is 6 days earlier in southern than northern sites, 5 days earlier under urban than rural settings, and 1 day earlier at lower than higher elevations. Compared to trees and shrubs, the largest lifeform-specific phenological shift of 32 days is found in herbs, which are generally characterized by fast turnover rates and potentially high levels of genetic adaptation. Correlated with January-April maximum temperatures at -0.81 from 1952-2019 (p < 0.0001), the observed trends (5.4 days per decade) and extremes (66 days between the earliest and latest annual mean) in the UK's first flowering dataset can affect the functioning and productivity of ecosystems and agriculture.
dc.languageeng
dc.publisherThe Royal Society
dc.rightsAttribution 4.0 International
dc.rights.urihttps://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
dc.sourcenlmid: 101245157
dc.sourceessn: 1471-2954
dc.subjectClimate change
dc.subjectPlant phenology
dc.subjectEcosystem service
dc.subjectCitizen Science
dc.subjectBritish Isles
dc.subjectWoodland Trust
dc.titlePlants in the UK flower a month earlier under recent warming.
dc.typeArticle
dc.date.updated2022-03-06T02:03:42Z
prism.issueIdentifier1968
prism.publicationNameProc Biol Sci
prism.volume289
dc.identifier.doi10.17863/CAM.82132
dcterms.dateAccepted2022-01-04
rioxxterms.versionofrecord10.1098/rspb.2021.2456
rioxxterms.versionVoR
rioxxterms.licenseref.urihttps://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
dc.contributor.orcidBüntgen, Ulf [0000-0002-3821-0818]
dc.identifier.eissn1471-2954
pubs.funder-project-idEuropean Research Council (882727)
cam.issuedOnline2022-02-02


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Attribution 4.0 International
Except where otherwise noted, this item's licence is described as Attribution 4.0 International