Intracranial Pressure-Derived Cerebrovascular Reactivity Indices, Chronological Age, and Biological Sex in Traumatic Brain Injury: A Scoping Review.
Stein, Kevin Y
Sainbhi, Amanjyot Singh
Mary Ann Liebert Inc
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Batson, C., Stein, K. Y., Gomez, A., Sainbhi, A. S., Froese, L., Alizadeh, A., Mathieu, F., & et al. (2022). Intracranial Pressure-Derived Cerebrovascular Reactivity Indices, Chronological Age, and Biological Sex in Traumatic Brain Injury: A Scoping Review.. Neurotrauma Rep, 3 (1), 44-56. https://doi.org/10.1089/neur.2021.0054
To date, there has been limited literature exploring the association between age and sex with cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) in moderate/severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). Given the known link between age, sex, and cerebrovascular function, knowledge of the impacts on continuously assessed CVR is critical for the development of future therapeutics. We conducted a scoping review of the literature for studies that had a direct statistical interrogation of the relationship between age, sex, and continuous intracranial pressure (ICP)-based indices of CVR in moderate/severe TBI. The ICP-based indices researched included: pressure reactivity index (PRx), pulse amplitude index (PAx), and RAC. MEDLINE, BIOSIS, EMBASE, SCOPUS, Global Health, and the Cochrane library were searched from inception to June 2021 for relevant articles. A total of 10 original studies fulfilled our inclusion criteria. Nine of the articles documented a correlation between advanced age and worse CVR, with eight using PRx (2192 total patients), three using PAx (978 total patients), and one using RAC (358 total patients), p < 0.05; R ranging from 0.17 to 0.495 for all indices across all studies. Three articles (1256 total patients) displayed a correlation between biological sex and PRx, with females trending towards higher PRx values (p < 0.05) in the limited available literature. However, no literature exists comparing PAx or RAC with biological sex. Findings showed that aging was associated with impaired CVR. We observed a trend between female sex and worse PRx values, but the literature was limited and statistical significance was borderline. The identified studies were few in number, carried significant population heterogeneity, and utilized grand averaging of large epochs of physiology during statistical comparisons with age and biological sex. Because of the heterogeneous nature of TBI populations and limited focus on the effects of age and sex on outcomes in TBI, it is challenging to highlight the differences between the indices and patient age groups and sex. The largest study showing an association between PRx and age was done by Zeiler and colleagues, where 165 patients were studied noting that patients with a mean PRx value above zero had a mean age above 51.4 years versus a mean age of 41.4 years for those with a mean PRx value below zero (p = 0.0007). The largest study showing an association between PRx and sex was done by Czosnyka and colleagues, where 469 patients were studied noting that for patients <50 years of age, PRx was worse in females (0.11 ± 0.047) compared to males (0.044 ± 0.031), p < 0.05. The findings from these 10 studies provide preliminary data, but are insufficient to definitively characterize the impact of age and sex on CVR in moderate/severe TBI. Future work in the field should focus on the impact of age and sex on multi-modal cerebral physiological monitoring.
Age, Traumatic brain injury, Autoregulation, Biological Sex
External DOI: https://doi.org/10.1089/neur.2021.0054
This record's URL: https://www.repository.cam.ac.uk/handle/1810/334719
Attribution 4.0 International
Licence URL: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/