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dc.contributor.authorBadenoch, James B
dc.contributor.authorRengasamy, Emma R
dc.contributor.authorWatson, Cameron
dc.contributor.authorJansen, Katrin
dc.contributor.authorChakraborty, Stuti
dc.contributor.authorSundaram, Ritika D
dc.contributor.authorHafeez, Danish
dc.contributor.authorBurchill, Ella
dc.contributor.authorSaini, Aman
dc.contributor.authorThomas, Lucretia
dc.contributor.authorCross, Benjamin
dc.contributor.authorHunt, Camille K
dc.contributor.authorConti, Isabella
dc.contributor.authorRalovska, Sylvia
dc.contributor.authorHussain, Zain
dc.contributor.authorButler, Matthew
dc.contributor.authorPollak, Thomas A
dc.contributor.authorKoychev, Ivan
dc.contributor.authorMichael, Benedict D
dc.contributor.authorHolling, Heinz
dc.contributor.authorNicholson, Timothy R
dc.contributor.authorRogers, Jonathan P
dc.contributor.authorRooney, Alasdair G
dc.description.abstractThe nature and extent of persistent neuropsychiatric symptoms after COVID-19 are not established. To help inform mental health service planning in the pandemic recovery phase, we systematically determined the prevalence of neuropsychiatric symptoms in survivors of COVID-19. For this pre-registered systematic review and meta-analysis (PROSPERO ID CRD42021239750), we searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and PsycINFO to 20 February 2021, plus our own curated database. We included peer-reviewed studies reporting neuropsychiatric symptoms at post-acute or later time-points after COVID-19 infection and in control groups where available. For each study, a minimum of two authors extracted summary data. For each symptom, we calculated a pooled prevalence using generalized linear mixed models. Heterogeneity was measured with I 2. Subgroup analyses were conducted for COVID-19 hospitalization, severity and duration of follow-up. From 2844 unique titles, we included 51 studies (n = 18 917 patients). The mean duration of follow-up after COVID-19 was 77 days (range 14-182 days). Study quality was most commonly moderate. The most prevalent neuropsychiatric symptom was sleep disturbance [pooled prevalence = 27.4% (95% confidence interval 21.4-34.4%)], followed by fatigue [24.4% (17.5-32.9%)], objective cognitive impairment [20.2% (10.3-35.7%)], anxiety [19.1% (13.3-26.8%)] and post-traumatic stress [15.7% (9.9-24.1%)]. Only two studies reported symptoms in control groups, both reporting higher frequencies in COVID-19 survivors versus controls. Between-study heterogeneity was high (I 2 = 79.6-98.6%). There was little or no evidence of differential symptom prevalence based on hospitalization status, severity or follow-up duration. Neuropsychiatric symptoms are common and persistent after recovery from COVID-19. The literature on longer-term consequences is still maturing but indicates a particularly high prevalence of insomnia, fatigue, cognitive impairment and anxiety disorders in the first 6 months after infection.
dc.publisherOxford University Press (OUP)
dc.rightsAttribution 4.0 International
dc.sourceessn: 2632-1297
dc.sourcenlmid: 101755125
dc.subjectLong Covid
dc.subjectChronic Covid Syndrome
dc.subjectPost-Acute Sequelae Of Covid-19
dc.titlePersistent neuropsychiatric symptoms after COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
prism.publicationNameBrain Commun
dc.contributor.orcidBadenoch, James B [0000-0002-6994-6916]
dc.contributor.orcidHafeez, Danish [0000-0003-3712-136X]
dc.contributor.orcidBurchill, Ella [0000-0002-1674-8844]
dc.contributor.orcidPollak, Thomas A [0000-0002-6171-0810]
dc.contributor.orcidRogers, Jonathan P [0000-0002-4671-5410]
pubs.funder-project-idMedical Research Foundation (C0396)
pubs.funder-project-idWellcome Trust (102186/B/13/Z)
pubs.funder-project-idMedical Research Council (MR/J000914/1)

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Attribution 4.0 International
Except where otherwise noted, this item's licence is described as Attribution 4.0 International