Natural history of PF4 antibodies in vaccine-induced immune thrombocytopenia and thrombosis.
American Society of Hematology
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Craven, B., Lester, W., Boyce, S., Thomas, W., Kanny, A., Davies, C., Pavord, S., et al. (2022). Natural history of PF4 antibodies in vaccine-induced immune thrombocytopenia and thrombosis.. Blood https://doi.org/10.1182/blood.2021014684
The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in the rapid development of a range of vaccines against SARS-CoV-2. Vaccine-induced immune thrombocytopenia and thrombosis (VITT) is a rare but life-threatening complication of primarily adenoviral-based vaccines associated with the presence of antibodies to a PF4/polyanion neoepitope and measured by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Presented are serial anti-PF4/polyanion antibody, platelet, and D-dimer measurements in a large cohort of patients and their relation to relapse. Overall, 51% of patients using the Stago assay had persistently positive anti-PF4/polyanion levels 100 days' postdiagnosis, whereas 94% of patients monitored by using the Immucor assay remain positive. The median duration of positivity of the PF4 assay is 87 days, with 72% of patients remaining positive after a median follow-up of 105 days. The use of plasma exchange seemed to reduce anti-PF4/polyanion levels and increase platelet counts in the acute setting more rapidly than other therapies. The rate of relapse in this study was 12.6%, with all relapsed cases exhibiting persistently positive PF4 antibodies and falling platelet counts. Only one patient had extension of their thrombosis. Overall, despite the persistence of PF4 antibodies in 72% of patients, the rate of relapse was low and did not seem to result in recrudescence of the aggressive clinical picture seen at index presentation. Monitoring of these patients in the UK cohort is ongoing and will aid in definition of the natural history of this novel condition.
External DOI: https://doi.org/10.1182/blood.2021014684
This record's URL: https://www.repository.cam.ac.uk/handle/1810/335955