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dc.contributor.authorRiesmeier, Marabel
dc.contributor.authorKeute, Jennifer
dc.contributor.authorVeall, Margaret-Ashley
dc.contributor.authorBorschneck, Daniel
dc.contributor.authorStevenson, Alice
dc.contributor.authorGarnett, Anna
dc.contributor.authorWilliams, Alice
dc.contributor.authorRagan, Maria
dc.contributor.authorDevièse, Thibaut
dc.date.accessioned2022-05-11T01:03:34Z
dc.date.available2022-05-11T01:03:34Z
dc.date.issued2022-04-08
dc.identifier.issn2045-2322
dc.identifier.other35396488
dc.identifier.otherPMC8994005
dc.identifier.urihttps://www.repository.cam.ac.uk/handle/1810/337000
dc.description.abstractKohl, a dark eye cosmetic, is a well-known part of Ancient Egyptian culture. Modern chemical analyses of kohls have largely found lead-based inorganic constituents, whereas earlier studies argued for a much broader range of constituents. Furthermore, organic materials in kohls remain severely understudied. This raises questions regarding the true diversity of materials and recipes used to produce kohls. We analysed the contents of 11 kohl containers from the Petrie Museum collection in London. The objects selected cover a broad range of times and locations in Egypt. Our multi-analytical approach allowed us to characterise both inorganic and organic components. Our data show that inorganic ingredients in kohl recipes are not only lead-based but also manganese- and silicon-based. Our analyses also revealed that organic ingredients derived from both plant and animal sources were commonly used in kohl recipes and sometimes even represent the main constituent. All these findings point towards more varied recipes than initially thought and significantly shift our understanding of Ancient Egyptian kohls.
dc.languageeng
dc.publisherSpringer Science and Business Media LLC
dc.rightsAttribution 4.0 International
dc.rights.urihttps://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
dc.sourcenlmid: 101563288
dc.sourceessn: 2045-2322
dc.subjectAnimals
dc.subjectCosmetics
dc.subjectHistory, Ancient
dc.subjectEgypt
dc.subjectLondon
dc.subjectEgypt, Ancient
dc.titleRecipes of Ancient Egyptian kohls more diverse than previously thought.
dc.typeArticle
dc.date.updated2022-05-11T01:03:34Z
prism.issueIdentifier1
prism.publicationNameSci Rep
prism.volume12
dc.identifier.doi10.17863/CAM.84420
dcterms.dateAccepted2022-03-07
rioxxterms.versionofrecord10.1038/s41598-022-08669-0
rioxxterms.versionVoR
rioxxterms.licenseref.urihttps://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
dc.contributor.orcidDevièse, Thibaut [0000-0003-0495-7398]
dc.identifier.eissn2045-2322
pubs.funder-project-idArts and Humanities Research Council (AH/N007174/1)
cam.issuedOnline2022-04-08


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Attribution 4.0 International
Except where otherwise noted, this item's licence is described as Attribution 4.0 International