Multiple iliopsoas tendons: a cadaveric study and treatment implications for internal snapping hip syndrome.
Lloyd, Thomas D
Arch Orthop Trauma Surg
Springer Science and Business Media LLC
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Lin, B., Bartlett, J., Lloyd, T. D., Challoumas, D., Brassett, C., & Khanduja, V. (2022). Multiple iliopsoas tendons: a cadaveric study and treatment implications for internal snapping hip syndrome.. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg, 142 (6), 1147-1154. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00402-021-04009-5
PURPOSE: This cadaveric study aimed at describing the anatomical variations of the iliopsoas complex. METHODS: The iliopsoas complex was dissected unilaterally in 28 formalin-embalmed cadavers-13 males and 15 females with a mean age of 85.6 years. The number, courses and widths of the iliacus and psoas major tendons were determined. Patients with previous hip surgery were excluded. The following measurements were taken from the mid-inguinal point: the distance to the point of union of the psoas major and iliacus tendon; and the distance to the most distal insertion of iliopsoas. RESULTS: The presence of single, double and triple tendon insertions of iliopsoas were found in 12, 12 and 4 of the 28 specimens, respectively. When present, double and triple tendons inserted separately onto the lesser trochanter. The average length of the iliopsoas tendon from the mid-inguinal point to the most distal attachment at the lesser trochanter was 122.3 ± 13.0 mm. The iliacus muscle bulk merged with psoas major at an average distance of 24.9 ± 17.9 mm proximal to the mid-inguinal point. In all cases, the lateral-most fibres of iliacus yielded a non-tendinous, muscular insertion on to the anterior surface of the lesser trochanter and the femoral shaft, rather than joining onto the main iliopsoas tendon(s). The average total width of the psoas major tendon decreased with an increasing number of tendons: 14.6 ± 2.2 mm (single tendon), 8.2 ± 3.0 mm (2 tendons present) and 5.9 ± 1.1 mm (3 tendons present) (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest that multiple tendinous insertions of iliopsoas are present as an anatomical variant in more than 50% of the population. The non-tendinous muscular insertion of the iliopsoas on to the anterior surface of the lesser trochanter and femoral shaft found represents a novel anatomical variant not previously described. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level V.
Arthroscopy and Sports Medicine, Internal snapping hip syndrome, Iliopsoas, Anatomical variation, Hip arthroscopy, Iliopsoas tenotomy
External DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00402-021-04009-5
This record's URL: https://www.repository.cam.ac.uk/handle/1810/337188