XPEEM and MFM Imaging of Ferroic Materials
We describe and compare two complementary techniques that we habitually use to image ferromagnetic and ferroelectric materials with sub-micron spatial resolutions (typically 50 nm, at best 10 nm). The first technique is variable-temperature PhotoEmission Electron Microscopy with magnetic/antiferromagnetic/polar contrast from circularly/linearly polarized incident X-rays (XPEEM). The second technique is Magnetic Force Microscopy (MFM). Focussing mainly on our own work, but not exclusively, we present published/unpublished XPEEM and MFM images of ferroic domains and complex magnetic textures (involving vortices and phase separation). Highlights include the use of two XPEEM images to create 2D vector maps of in plane (IP) magnetization, and the use of imaging to detect electrically driven local reversals of magnetization. Our brief and simple descriptions of XPEEM and MFM should be useful for beginners seeking to employ these techniques in order to understand and harness ferroic materials.
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