Detecting sleep outside the clinic using wearable heart rate devices.
The adoption of multisensor wearables presents the opportunity of longitudinal monitoring of sleep in large populations. Personalized yet device-agnostic algorithms can sidestep laborious human annotations and objectify cross-cohort comparisons. We developed and tested a heart rate-based algorithm that captures inter- and intra-individual sleep differences in free-living conditions and does not require human input. We evaluated it on four study cohorts using different research- and consumer-grade devices for over 2000 nights. Recording periods included both 24 h free-living and conventional lab-based night-only data. We compared our optimized method against polysomnography, sleep diaries and sleep periods produced through a state-of-the-art acceleration based method. Against sleep diaries, the algorithm yielded a mean squared error of 0.04-0.06 and a total sleep time (TST) deviation of [Formula: see text]2.70 (± 5.74) and 12.80 (± 3.89) minutes, respectively. When evaluated with PSG lab studies, the MSE ranged between 0.06 and 0.11 yielding a time deviation between [Formula: see text]29.07 and [Formula: see text]55.04 minutes. These results showcase the value of this open-source, device-agnostic algorithm for the reliable inference of sleep in free-living conditions and in the absence of annotations.
Online Publication Date
National Institute for Health and Care Research (IS-BRC-1215-20014)
Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust (CUH) (146281)