X-Ray Markers for Thin Film Implants.
Woodington, Ben J
Rochford, Amy E
O'Neill, Stephen JK
Scherman, Oren A
Barone, Damiano G
Proctor, Christopher M
Adv Healthc Mater
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Woodington, B. J., Coles, L., Rochford, A. E., Freeman, P., Sawiak, S., O'Neill, S. J., Scherman, O. A., et al. (2022). X-Ray Markers for Thin Film Implants.. Adv Healthc Mater https://doi.org/10.1002/adhm.202200739
Implantable electronic medical devices are used in functional mapping of the brain before surgery and to deliver neuromodulation for the treatment of neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders. Their electrode arrays are assembled by hand, and this leads to bulky form factors with limited flexibility and low electrode counts. Thin film implants, made using microfabrication techniques, are emerging as an attractive alternative, as they offer dramatically improved conformability and enable high density recording and stimulation. A major limitation of these devices, however, is that they are invisible to fluoroscopy, the most common method used to monitor the insertion of implantable electrodes. Here, we report the development of mechanically flexible x-ray markers using bismuth- and barium-infused elastomers. We explore their x-ray attenuation properties in human cadavers and show that they are biocompatible in cell cultures. We further show that they do not distort MRI images and demonstrate their integration with thin film implants. This work removes a key barrier for the adoption of thin film implants in brain mapping and in neuromodulation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
We gratefully acknowledge the quality of the facility and the assistance provided by all the staff at the Evelyn Cambridge Surgical Training Centre whose HTA license made it possible and where part of this work was undertaken. We also acknowledge the Diagnostic Imaging Department at the Queen’s Veterinary School Hospital for their assistance in capturing x-ray images. Funding: BJW acknowledges funding from the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council Centre for Doctoral Training in Sensor Technologies and Applications (EP/L015889/1). LC acknowledges funding from the UK Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council Centre for Doctoral Training in Sensor Technologies for a Healthy and Sustainable Future (EP/S023046/1). SJKO and OAS acknowledge funding from ERC consolidator grant (CAM RIG, 726470). AER acknowledges funding from the UK Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) (EP/S009000/1). CMP acknowledges funding from the University of Cambridge Borysiewicz Fellowship program and the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council David Phillips Fellowship. DGB. is supported by Health Education England and the National Institute for Health Research HEE/NIHR ICA Program Clinical Lectureship (CL-2019-14-004) and acknowledge funding for Royal College of Surgeons of England (G110237) and Academy of Medical Sciences (G111425). Additional project support and funding were provided by the EPSRC IAA Follow-on Fund Project for Spinal Cord Stimulator (RG90413) and Medical Research Council Confidence in Concept (RG84584). The devices were built in the laboratory for prototyping soft neuroprosthetic technologies, funded by the Sir Jules Thorn charitable trust (233838).
Sir Jules Thorn Charitable Trust (233838)
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External DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/adhm.202200739
This record's URL: https://www.repository.cam.ac.uk/handle/1810/338624
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