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dc.contributor.authorLian, Yaxiao
dc.contributor.authorLan, Dongchen
dc.contributor.authorXing, Shiyu
dc.contributor.authorGuo, Bingbing
dc.contributor.authorRen, Zhixiang
dc.contributor.authorLai, Runchen
dc.contributor.authorZou, Chen
dc.contributor.authorZhao, Baodan
dc.contributor.authorFriend, Richard
dc.contributor.authorDi, Dawei
dc.date.accessioned2022-07-05T15:01:17Z
dc.date.available2022-07-05T15:01:17Z
dc.date.issued2022-07-04
dc.date.submitted2022-02-11
dc.identifier.citationNature Communications, volume 13, issue 1, article-number 3845
dc.identifier.issn2041-1723
dc.identifier.others41467-022-31478-y
dc.identifier.other31478
dc.identifier.urihttps://www.repository.cam.ac.uk/handle/1810/338787
dc.descriptionFunder: National Natural Science Foundation of China (National Science Foundation of China); doi: https://doi.org/10.13039/501100001809
dc.descriptionFunder: RCUK | Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC); doi: https://doi.org/10.13039/501100000266
dc.description.abstractFor a light-emitting diode (LED) to generate light, the minimum voltage required is widely considered to be the emitter's bandgap divided by the elementary charge. Here we show for many classes of LEDs, including those based on perovskite, organic, quantum-dot and III-V semiconductors, light emission can be observed at record-low voltages of 36-60% of their bandgaps, exhibiting a large apparent energy gain of 0.6-1.4 eV per photon. For 17 types of LEDs with different modes of charge injection and recombination (dark saturation currents of ~10-39-10-15 mA cm-2), their emission intensity-voltage curves under low voltages show similar behaviours. These observations and their consistency with the diode simulations suggest the ultralow-voltage electroluminescence arises from a universal origin-the radiative recombination of non-thermal-equilibrium band-edge carriers whose populations are determined by the Fermi-Dirac function perturbed by a small external bias. These results indicate the potential of low-voltage LEDs for communications, computational and energy applications.
dc.languageen
dc.publisherSpringer Science and Business Media LLC
dc.subjectArticle
dc.subject/639/301/1005
dc.subject/639/624/1020
dc.subject/639/766/1130
dc.subject/639/925/357/995
dc.subject/639/4077/4072/4062
dc.subject/120
dc.subject/128
dc.subject/139
dc.subject/129
dc.subjectarticle
dc.titleUltralow-voltage operation of light-emitting diodes.
dc.typeArticle
dc.date.updated2022-07-05T15:01:16Z
prism.publicationNameNat Commun
dc.identifier.doi10.17863/CAM.86194
dcterms.dateAccepted2022-06-16
rioxxterms.versionofrecord10.1038/s41467-022-31478-y
rioxxterms.versionVoR
rioxxterms.licenseref.urihttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
dc.contributor.orcidLan, Dongchen [0000-0001-6684-7421]
dc.contributor.orcidLai, Runchen [0000-0002-5827-8991]
dc.contributor.orcidZhao, Baodan [0000-0002-4006-7061]
dc.contributor.orcidFriend, Richard [0000-0001-6565-6308]
dc.contributor.orcidDi, Dawei [0000-0003-0703-2809]
dc.identifier.eissn2041-1723
cam.issuedOnline2022-07-04


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