The Gaia -ESO Survey: Sodium and aluminium abundances in giants and dwarfs: Implications for stellar and Galactic chemical evolution

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Smiljanic, R 
Romano, D 
Bragaglia, A 
Donati, P 
Magrini, L 

Stellar evolution models predict that internal mixing should cause some sodium overabundance at the surface of red giants more massive than ~ 1.5--2.0 Msun. The surface aluminium abundance should not be affected. Nevertheless, observational results disagree about the presence and/or the degree of the Na and Al overabundances. In addition, Galactic chemical evolution models adopting different stellar yields lead to quite different predictions for the behavior of [Na/Fe] and [Al/Fe] versus [Fe/H]. Overall, the observed trends of these abundances with metallicity are not well reproduced. We readdress both issues, using new Na and Al abundances determined within the Gaia-ESO Survey, using two samples: i) more than 600 dwarfs of the solar neighborhood and of open clusters and ii) low- and intermediate-mass clump giants in six open clusters. Abundances of Na in giants with mass below ~2.0 Msun, and of Al in giants below ~3.0 Msun, seem to be unaffected by internal mixing processes. For more massive giants, the Na overabundance increases with stellar mass. This trend agrees well with predictions of stellar evolutionary models. Chemical evolution models that are able to fit well the observed [Na/Fe] vs. [Fe/H] trend in solar neighborhood dwarfs can not simultaneously explain the run of [Al/Fe] with [Fe/H], and viceversa. The comparison with stellar ages is hampered by severe uncertainties. Indeed, reliable age estimates are available for only a half of the stars of the sample. We conclude that Al is underproduced by the models, except for stellar ages younger than about 7 Gyr. In addition, some significant source of late Na production seems to be missing in the models. Either current Na and Al yields are affected by large uncertainties, and/or some important Galactic source(s) of these elements has not been taken into account up to now. [abridged]

Galaxy: abundances, Galaxy: evolution, stars: abundances, stars: evolution, stars: late-type
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Astronomy and Astrophysics
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EDP Sciences
European Research Council (320360)
Leverhulme Trust (RPG-2012-541)
Science and Technology Facilities Council (ST/N005805/1)
R.S. acknowledges support by the National Science Center of Poland through grant 2012/07/B/ST9/04428. T.M. acknowledges financial support from Belspo for contract PRODEX GAIA-DPAC. V.A. acknowledges the support from the Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT) in the form of the grants SFRH/BPD/70574/2010 and PTDC/FIS-AST/1526/2014. G.T. acknowledges support by the grant from the Research Council of Lithuania (MIP-082/2015). P.F. acknowledges support from the CNES. U.H. acknowledges support from the Swedish National Space Board (SNSB). Based on data products from observations made with ESO Telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under programme ID 188.B-3002. These data products have been processed by the Cambridge Astronomy Survey Unit (CASU) at the Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, and by the FLAMES/UVES reduction team at INAF/Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri. These data have been obtained from the Gaia-ESO Survey Data Archive, prepared and hosted by the Wide Field Astronomy Unit, Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, which is funded by the UK Science and Technology Facilities Council. This work was partly supported by the European Union FP7 programme through ERC grant number 320360 and by the Leverhulme Trust through grant RPG-2012-541. We acknowledge the support from INAF and Ministero dell’ Istruzione, dell’ Universita’ e della Ricerca (MIUR) in the form of the grant “Premiale VLT 2012” and the grant “The Chemical and Dynamical Evolution of the Milky Way and Local Group Galaxies” (prot. 2010LY5N2T). The results presented here benefit from discussions held during the Gaia-ESO workshops and conferences supported by the ESF (European Science Foundation) through the GREAT Research Network Programme. This research has made use of the SIMBAD database, operated at CDS, Strasbourg, France, NASA’s Astrophysics Data System, and the WEBDA database, operated at the Department of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics of Masaryk University.