Insights into volcanic hazards and plume chemistry from multi-parameter observations: the eruptions of Fimmvörðuháls and Eyjafjallajökull (2010) and Holuhraun (2014–2015)

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Pfeffer, M 
Barnie, T 
Sawyer, G 
Roberts, T 

jats:titleAbstract</jats:title>jats:pThe eruptions of Eyjafjallajökull volcano in 2010 (including its initial effusive phase at Fimmvörðuháls and its later explosive phase from the central volcano) and Bárðarbunga volcano in 2014–2015 (at Holuhraun) were widely reported. Here, we report on complementary, interdisciplinary observations made of the eruptive gases and lavas that shed light on the processes and atmospheric impacts of the eruptions, and afford an intercomparison of contrasting eruptive styles and hazards. We find that (i) consistent with other authors, there are substantial differences in the gas composition between the eruptions; namely that the deeper stored Eyjafjallajökull magmas led to greater enrichment in Cl relative to S; (ii) lava field SOjats:sub2</jats:sub> degassing was measured to be 5–20% of the total emissions during Holuhraun, and the lava emissions were enriched in Cl at both fissure eruptions—particularly Fimmvörðuháls; and (iii) BrO is produced in Icelandic plumes in spite of the low UV levels.</jats:p>

Volcanic gas hazard, Volcanic gas monitoring, Iceland, Multi-parameter monitoring, Volcanic plumes
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Natural Hazards
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Springer Science and Business Media LLC