The vasculature as a neural stem cell niche.


Type
Article
Change log
Authors
Brand, Andrea H 
Abstract

Neural stem cells (NSCs) are multipotent, self-renewing progenitors that generate progeny that differentiate into neurons and glia. NSCs in the adult mammalian brain are generally quiescent. Environmental stimuli such as learning or exercise can activate quiescent NSCs, inducing them to proliferate and produce new neurons and glia. How are these behaviours coordinated? The neurovasculature, the circulatory system of the brain, is a key component of the NSC microenvironment, or 'niche'. Instructive signals from the neurovasculature direct NSC quiescence, proliferation, self-renewal and differentiation. During ageing, a breakdown in the niche accompanies NSC dysfunction and cognitive decline. There is much interest in reversing these changes and enhancing NSC activity by targeting the neurovasculature therapeutically. Here we discuss principles of neurovasculature-NSC crosstalk, and the implications for the design of NSC-based therapies. We also consider the emerging contributions to this field of the model organism Drosophila melanogaster.

Description
Keywords
Ageing, Blood vessel, Blood-brain barrier, Brain, Drosophila, Neurogenesis, Stem cell, Ventricular-subventricular zone, Aging, Animals, Brain, Drosophila melanogaster, Humans, Neural Stem Cells, Stem Cell Niche
Journal Title
Neurobiol Dis
Conference Name
Journal ISSN
0969-9961
1095-953X
Volume Title
107
Publisher
Elsevier BV
Sponsorship
Wellcome Trust (092096/Z/10/Z)
Wellcome Trust (103792/Z/14/Z)
Wellcome Trust (097423/Z/11/Z)
Cancer Research Uk (None)
A.H.·B. is funded by Wellcome Trust Senior Investigator Award103792. L.O. is funded by Wellcome Trust PhD Studentship097423. A.H.B acknowledges core funding to the Gurdon Institute from the Wellcome Trust (092096) and CRUK (C6946/A14492).