The core clock gene, Bmal1, and its downstream target, the SNARE regulatory protein secretagogin, are necessary for circadian secretion of glucagon-like peptide-1.
OBJECTIVES:The incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is secreted from intestinal L-cells upon nutrient intake. While recent evidence has shown that GLP-1 is released in a circadian manner in rats, whether this occurs in mice and if this pattern is regulated by the circadian clock remain to be elucidated. Furthermore, although circadian GLP-1 secretion parallels expression of the core clock gene Bmal1, the link between the two remains largely unknown. Secretagogin (Scgn) is an exocytotic SNARE regulatory protein that demonstrates circadian expression and is essential for insulin secretion from β-cells. The objective of the current study was to establish the necessity of the core clock gene Bmal1 and the SNARE protein SCGN as essential regulators of circadian GLP-1 secretion. METHODS:Oral glucose tolerance tests were conducted at different times of the day on 4-hour fasted C57BL/6J, Bmal1 wild-type, and Bmal1 knockout mice. Mass spectrometry, RNA-seq, qRT-PCR and/or microarray analyses, and immunostaining were conducted on murine (m) and human (h) primary L-cells and mGLUTag and hNCI-H716 L-cell lines. At peak and trough GLP-1 secretory time points, the mGLUTag cells were co-stained for SCGN and a membrane-marker, ChIP was used to analyze BMAL1 binding sites in the Scgn promoter, protein interaction with SCGN was tested by co-immunoprecipitation, and siRNA was used to knockdown Scgn for GLP-1 secretion assay. RESULTS:C57BL/6J mice displayed a circadian rhythm in GLP-1 secretion that peaked at the onset of their feeding period. Rhythmic GLP-1 release was impaired in Bmal1 knockout (KO) mice as compared to wild-type controls at the peak (p < 0.05) but not at the trough secretory time point. Microarray identified SNARE and transport vesicle pathways as highly upregulated in mGLUTag L-cells at the peak time point of GLP-1 secretion (p < 0.001). Mass spectrometry revealed that SCGN was also increased at this time (p < 0.001), while RNA-seq, qRT-PCR, and immunostaining demonstrated Scgn expression in all human and murine primary L-cells and cell lines. The mGLUTag and hNCI-H716 L-cells exhibited circadian rhythms in Scgn expression (p < 0.001). The ChIP analysis demonstrated increased binding of BMAL1 only at the peak of Scgn expression (p < 0.01). Immunocytochemistry showed the translocation of SCGN to the cell membrane after stimulation at the peak time point only (p < 0.05), while CoIP showed that SCGN was pulled down with SNAP25 and β-actin, but only the latter interaction was time-dependent (p < 0.05). Finally, Scgn siRNA-treated cells demonstrated significantly blunted GLP-1 secretion (p < 0.01) in response to stimulation at the peak time point only. CONCLUSIONS:These data demonstrate, for the first time, that mice display a circadian pattern in GLP-1 secretion, which is impaired in Bmal1 knockout mice, and that Bmal1 regulation of Scgn expression plays an essential role in the circadian release of the incretin hormone GLP-1.