Non-typhoidal Salmonella serovars associated with invasive and non-invasive disease in the Lao People's Democratic Republic.
BACKGROUND: Invasive non-typhoidal Salmonella (iNTS) disease is a well-described cause of mortality in children and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adults in sub-Saharan Africa. Additionally, there is an ill-defined burden of iNTS disease in Southeast Asia. METHODS: Aiming to investigate the causative serovars of non-invasive and iNTS disease and their associated antimicrobial susceptibility profiles in the Lao People's Democratic Republic, we performed multilocus sequence typing and antimicrobial susceptibility profiling on 168 NTS (63 blood and 105 faecal) organisms isolated in Lao between 2000 and 2012. RESULTS: Six different serovars were isolated from blood; Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (n=28), S. enterica serovar Typhimurium (n=19) and S. enterica serovar Choleraesuis (n=11) accounted for >90% (58/63) of the iNTS disease cases. In contrast, the isolates from diarrhoeal faeces were comprised of 18 different serovars, the mostly commonly identified being S. enterica Typhimurium (n=28), S. enterica Weltevreden (n=14) and S. enterica Stanley (n=15). S. enterica Enteritidis and S. enterica Choleraesuis were significantly more associated with systemic disease than diarrhoeal disease in this patient group (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: We find a differing distribution of Salmonella sequence types/serovars between those causing iNTS disease and non-invasive disease in Lao. We conclude that there is a small but not insignificant burden of iNTS disease in Lao. Further clinical and epidemiological investigations are required to assess mortality and the role of comorbidities such as HIV.