Multidirectional chromosome painting in Synallaxis frontalis (Passeriformes, Furnariidae) reveals high chromosomal reorganization, involving fissions and inversions.
In this work we performed comparative chromosome painting using probes from Gallus gallus (GGA) Linnaeus, 1758 and Leucopternis albicollis (LAL) Latham, 1790 in Synallaxis frontalis Pelzeln, 1859 (Passeriformes, Furnariidae), an exclusively Neotropical species, in order to analyze whether the complex pattern of intrachromosomal rearrangements (paracentric and pericentric inversions) proposed for Oscines and Suboscines is shared with more basal species. S. frontalis has 82 chromosomes, similar to most Avian species, with a large number of microchromosomes and a few pairs of macrochromosomes. We found polymorphisms in pairs 1 and 3, where homologues were submetacentric and acrocentric. Hybridization of GGA probes showed syntenies in the majority of ancestral macrochromosomes, except for GGA1 and GGA2, which hybridized to more than one pair of chromosomes each. LAL probes confirmed the occurrence of intrachromosomal rearrangements in the chromosomes corresponding to GGA1q, as previously proposed for species from the order Passeriformes. In addition, LAL probes suggest that pericentric inversions or centromere repositioning were responsible for variations in the morphology of the heteromorphic pairs 1 and 3. Altogether, the analysis of our data on chromosome painting and the data published in other Passeriformes highlights chromosomal changes that have occurred during the evolution of Passeriformes.