MACHINE LEARNING IN SMALL SAMPLE NEUROIMAGING STUDIES: NOVEL MEASURES FOR SCHIZOPHRENIA ANALYSIS


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Authors
Murray, Graham 
Ramírez, Javier 
Jiménez-Mesa, Carmen 
Gorriz, Juan Manuel 
Abstract

Novel features derived from imaging and artificial intelligence systems are commonly coupled to construct computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems that are intended as clinical support tools or for investigation of complex biological patterns. This study used sulcal patterns from structural images of the brain as the basis for classifying patients with schizophrenia from unaffected controls. Statistical, machine learning and deep learning techniques were sequentially applied as a demonstration of how a CAD system might be comprehensively evaluated in the absence of prior empirical work or extant literature to guide development, and the availability of only small sample datasets. Sulcal features of the entire cerebral cortex were derived from 58 schizophrenia patients and 56 healthy controls. No similar CAD systems has been reported that uses sulcal features from the entire cortex. We considered all the stages in a CAD system workflow: preprocessing, feature selection and extraction, and classification. The explainable AI techniques Local Interpretable Model-agnostic Explanations and SHapley Additive exPlanations were applied to detect the relevance of features to classification. At each stage, alternatives were compared in terms of their performance in the context of a small sample. Differentiating sulcal patterns were located in temporal and precentral areas, as well as the collateral fissure. We also verified the benefits of applying dimensionality reduction techniques and validation methods, such as resubstitution with upper bound correction, to optimize performance.

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Journal Title
Human Brain Mapping
Conference Name
Journal ISSN
1065-9471
Volume Title
Publisher
Wiley
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Sponsorship
Supported by the NIHR Cambridge Biomedical Research Centre (NIHR203312) and the NIHR Applied Research Collaboration East of England. This study was supported by funding from the Medical Research Council, grant number: MR/W020025/1