Temporal Trends in Maternal Food Intake Frequencies and Associations with Gestational Diabetes: The Cambridge Baby Growth Study.

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Petry, Clive J 
Ong, Ken K 
Hughes, Ieuan A 
Acerini, Carlo L 
Dunger, David B 

Previous studies have suggested that in the first decade of this century the incidence of gestational diabetes (GDM) in pregnancy rose worldwide. In the Cambridge Baby Growth Study cohort we observed that this temporal trend was associated with an index of multiple deprivation and reductions in indices of insulin secretion. Deprivation level was not directly associated with GDM, suggesting that the temporal trend may relate more to other factors linked to it, such as dietary composition. In this study we investigated temporal trends in perceived food intake frequencies, derived from a qualitative, short questionnaire, in 865 pregnant Cambridge Baby Growth Study (CBGS) recruits. A number of food frequency ranks showed both temporal trends and associations with GDM, but of note is the frequency of egg consumption (negative temporal trend p = 0.03, slope = -6.2 ranks/year; negative association with GDM p = 3.0 × 10-8, slope = -0.002 increased risk/rank) as it was also positively associated with the insulin disposition index (p = 1.17 × 10-3, slope = 0.42 ranks. L/mmoL). These results are consistent with a potential protective effect of factors related to the frequency of egg consumption in pregnancy. Such factors may have contributed to the observed temporal trend in GDM risk but the overall detectable effect appears to have been small.

diet, food frequency questionnaire, glucose, insulin secretion, pregnancy, Adult, Biomarkers, Blood Glucose, Diabetes, Gestational, Diet, Eating, Eggs, England, Feeding Behavior, Female, Humans, Incidence, Insulin, Longitudinal Studies, Maternal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena, Nutritional Status, Pregnancy, Prospective Studies, Protective Factors, Risk Assessment, Risk Factors, Time Factors
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Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust (CUH) (146281)
National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) (unknown)
Medical Research Council (MC_UU_12015/2)
Medical Research Council (G1001995)
Medical Research Council (G0500733)
Medical Research Council (G0600717)
This work was funded by the Medical Research Council (grant numbers G1001995, 7500001180); European Union Framework 5 (grant number QLK4-1999-01422); the Mothercare Charitable Foundation (grant number RG54608); Newlife – The Charity for Disabled Children (grant number 07/20); the World Cancer Research Fund International (grant number 2004/03); and the National Institute for Health Research Cambridge Biomedical Research Centre. K.K.O. is supported by the Medical Research Council (Unit Programme number: MC_UU_12015/2).