Upscaling Inverted Perovskite Solar Cells: Optimization of Laser Scribing for Highly Efficient Mini-Modules.
The upscaling of perovskite solar cells is one of the challenges that must be addressed to pave the way toward the commercial development of this technology. As for other thin-film photovoltaic technologies, upscaling requires the fabrication of modules composed of series-connected cells. In this work we demonstrate for the first time the interconnection of inverted modules with NiOx using a UV ns laser, obtaining a 10.2 cm2 minimodule with a 15.9% efficiency on the active area, the highest for a NiOx based perovskite module. We use optical microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and transfer length measurement to optimize the interconnection. The results are implemented in a complete electrical simulation of the cell-to-module losses to evaluate the experimental results and to provide an outlook on further development of single junction and multijunction perovskite modules.