The Gaia-ESO Survey: Inhibited extra mixing in two giants of the open cluster Trumpler 20?

Change log
Smiljanic, R 
Franciosini, E 
Randich, S 
Magrini, L 
Bragaglia, A 

We report the discovery of two Li-rich giants, with A(Li) ~ 1.50, in an analysis of a sample of 40 giants of the open cluster Trumpler 20 (with turnoff mass ~ 1.8 Msun). The cluster was observed in the context of the Gaia-ESO Survey. The atmospheric parameters and Li abundances were derived using high-resolution UVES spectra. The Li abundances were corrected for nonlocal thermodynamical equilibrium (non-LTE) effects. Only upper limits of the Li abundance could be determined for the majority of the sample. Two giants with detected Li turned out to be Li rich: star MG 340 has A(Li) non-LTE = 1.54 \pm 0.21 dex and star MG 591 has A(Li) non-LTE = 1.60 \pm 0.21 dex. Star MG 340 is on average ~ 0.30 dex more rich in Li than stars of similar temperature, while for star MG 591 this difference is on average ~ 0.80 dex. Carbon and nitrogen abundances indicate that all stars in the sample have completed the first dredge-up. The Li abundances in this unique sample of 40 giants in one open cluster clearly show that extra mixing is the norm in this mass range. Giants with Li abundances in agreement with the predictions of standard models are the exception. To explain the two Li-rich giants, we suggest that all events of extra mixing have been inhibited. This includes rotation-induced mixing during the main sequence and the extra mixing at the red giant branch luminosity bump. Such inhibition has been suggested in the literature to occur because of fossil magnetic fields in red giants that are descendants of main-sequence Ap-type stars.

stars: abundances, stars: evolution, stars: late-type, open clusters and associations: individual: Trumpler 20
Journal Title
Astronomy and Astrophysics
Conference Name
Journal ISSN
Volume Title
EDP Sciences
European Research Council (320360)
Leverhulme Trust (RPG-2012-541)
R.S. acknowledges support by the National Science Center of Poland through grant 2012/07/B/ST9/04428. S.V. gratefully acknowledges the support provided by FONDECYT reg. n. 1130721. G.T. acknowledges support by the Research Council of Lithuania (MIP-082/2015). D.G. gratefully acknowledges support from the Chilean BASAL Centro de Excelencia en Astrofísica y Tecnologías Afines (CATA) grant PFB-06/2007. S.G.S. acknowledges the support from FCT through Investigador FCT contract of reference IF/00028/2014. E.D.M. acknowledges the support from FCT in the form of the grant SFRH/BPD/76606/2011. S.G.S. and E.D.M. also acknowledge the support from FCT through the project PTDC/FIS-AST/7073/2014. Based on data products from observations made with ESO Telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under program ID 188.B-3002. These data products have been processed by the Cambridge Astronomy Survey Unit (CASU) at the Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, and by the FLAMES/UVES reduction team at INAF/Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri. These data have been obtained from the Gaia-ESO Survey Data Archive, prepared and hosted by the Wide Field Astronomy Unit, Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, which is funded by the UK Science and Technology Facilities Council. This work was partly supported by the European Union FP7 program through ERC grant number 320360 and by the Leverhulme Trust through grant RPG-2012- 541. We acknowledge the support from INAF and Ministero dell’ Istruzione, dell’ Università’ e della Ricerca (MIUR) in the form of the grant “Premiale VLT 2012” and “The Chemical and Dynamical Evolution of the Milky Way and Local Group Galaxies”. The results presented here benefit from discussions held during the Gaia-ESO workshops and conferences supported by the ESF (European Science Foundation) through the GREAT Research Network Programme.