Topology of one dimensional quantum systems out of equilibrium
We study the topological properties of one-dimensional systems undergoing unitary time evolution. We show that symmetries possessed both by the initial wave function and by the Hamiltonian at all times may not be present in the time-dependent wave function—a phenomenon which we dub “dynamically induced symmetry breaking.” This leads to the possibility of a time-varying bulk index after quenching within noninteracting gapped topological phases. The consequences are observable experimentally through particle transport measurements. With reference to the entanglement spectrum, we explain how the topology of the wave function can change out of equilibrium, both for noninteracting fermions and for symmetry-protected topological phases protected by antiunitary symmetries.
Simons Foundation (511029)
Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EP/P009565/1)