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DEEP-CARVING : Discovering Visual Attributes by Carving Deep Neural Nets

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Shankar, S 
Garg, VK 


Most of the approaches for discovering visual attributes in images demand significant supervision, which is cumbersome to obtain. In this paper, we aim to discover visual attributes in a weakly supervised setting that is commonly encountered with contemporary image search engines.

For instance, given a noun (say forest) and its associated attributes (say dense, sunlit, autumn), search engines can now generate many valid images for any attribute-noun pair (dense forests, autumn forests, etc). However, images for an attribute-noun pair do not contain any information about other attributes (like which forests in the autumn are dense too). Thus, a weakly supervised scenario occurs: each of the M attributes corresponds to a class such that a training image in class m ∈ {1, . . . , M} contains a single label that indicates the presence of the mᵗʰ attribute only. The task is to discover all the attributes present in a test image.

Deep Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) [20] have enjoyed remarkable success in vision applications recently. However, in a weakly supervised scenario, widely used CNN training procedures do not learn a robust model for predicting multiple attribute labels simultaneously. The primary reason is that the attributes highly co-occur within the training data, and unlike objects, do not generally exist as well-defined spatial boundaries within the image. To ameliorate this limitation, we propose Deep-Carving, a novel training procedure with CNNs, that helps the net efficiently carve itself for the task of multiple attribute prediction. During training, the responses of the feature maps are exploited in an ingenious way to provide the net with multiple pseudo-labels (for training images) for subsequent iterations. The process is repeated periodically after a fixed number of iterations, and enables the net carve itself iteratively for efficiently disentangling features.

Additionally, we contribute a noun-adjective pairing inspired Natural Scenes Attributes Dataset to the research community, CAMIT-NSAD, containing a number of co-occurring attributes within a noun category. We describe, in detail, salient aspects of this dataset. Our experiments on CAMIT-NSAD and the SUN Attributes Dataset [29], with weak supervision, clearly demonstrate that the Deep-Carved CNNs consistently achieve considerable improvement in the precision of attribute prediction over popular baseline methods.



computer architecture, entropy, predictive models, robustness, search engines, training, visualization

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2015 IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR)

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Cambridge Commonwealth Trusts