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The morphology, evolution and seismic visibility of partial melt at the core-mantle boundary: Implications for ULVZs

Accepted version
Peer-reviewed

Type

Article

Change log

Authors

Dannberg, J 
Myhill, R 
Gassmöller, R 

Abstract

jats:titleSUMMARY</jats:title> jats:pSeismic observations indicate that the lowermost mantle above the core–mantle boundary (CMB) is strongly heterogeneous. Body waves reveal a variety of ultra-low velocity zones (ULVZs), which extend not more than 100 km above the CMB and have shear velocity reductions of up to 30 per cent. While the nature and origin of these ULVZs remain uncertain, some have suggested they are evidence of partial melting at the base of mantle plumes. Here we use coupled geodynamic/thermodynamic modelling to explore the hypothesis that present-day deep mantle melting creates ULVZs and introduces compositional heterogeneity in the mantle. Our models explore the generation and migration of melt in a deforming and compacting host rock at the base of a plume in the lowermost mantle. We test whether the balance of gravitational and viscous forces can generate partially molten zones that are consistent with the seismic observations. We find that for a wide range of plausible melt densities, permeabilities and viscosities, lower mantle melt is too dense to be stirred into convective flow and instead sinks down to form a completely molten layer, which is inconsistent with observations of ULVZs. Only if melt is less dense or at most ca. 1 per cent more dense than the solid, or if melt pockets are trapped within the solid, can melt remain suspended in the partial melt zone. In these cases, seismic velocities would be reduced in a cone at the base of the plume. Generally, we find partial melt alone does not explain the observed ULVZ morphologies and solid-state compositional variation is required to explain the anomalies. Our findings provide a framework for testing whether seismically observed ULVZ shapes are consistent with a partial melt origin, which is an important step towards constraining the nature of the heterogeneities in the lowermost mantle and their influence on the thermal, compositional and dynamic evolution of the Earth.</jats:p>

Description

Keywords

Composition and structure of the mantle, Mantle processes, Structure of the Earth, Numerical modelling, Magma genesis and partial melting

Journal Title

Geophysical Journal International

Conference Name

Journal ISSN

0956-540X
1365-246X

Volume Title

227

Publisher

Oxford University Press (OUP)

Rights

All rights reserved
Sponsorship
European Research Council (804071)
ERC