Repository logo

Maps of Constitutive-Heterochromatin Distribution for Four Martes Species (Mustelidae, Carnivora, Mammalia) Show the Formative Role of Macrosatellite Repeats in Interspecific Variation of Chromosome Structure.

Published version



Change log


Beklemisheva, Violetta R 
Lemskaya, Natalya A 
Prokopov, Dmitry Yu  ORCID logo
Romanenko, Svetlana A  ORCID logo


Constitutive-heterochromatin placement in the genome affects chromosome structure by occupying centromeric areas and forming large blocks. To investigate the basis for heterochromatin variation in the genome, we chose a group of species with a conserved euchromatin part: the genus Martes [stone marten (M. foina, 2n = 38), sable (M. zibellina, 2n = 38), pine marten (M. martes, 2n = 38), and yellow-throated marten (M. flavigula, 2n = 40)]. We mined the stone marten genome for the most abundant tandem repeats and selected the top 11 macrosatellite repetitive sequences. Fluorescent in situ hybridization revealed distributions of the tandemly repeated sequences (macrosatellites, telomeric repeats, and ribosomal DNA). We next characterized the AT/GC content of constitutive heterochromatin by CDAG (Chromomycin A3-DAPI-after G-banding). The euchromatin conservatism was shown by comparative chromosome painting with stone marten probes in newly built maps of the sable and pine marten. Thus, for the four Martes species, we mapped three different types of tandemly repeated sequences critical for chromosome structure. Most macrosatellites are shared by the four species with individual patterns of amplification. Some macrosatellites are specific to a species, autosomes, or the X chromosome. The variation of core macrosatellites and their prevalence in a genome are responsible for the species-specific variation of the heterochromatic blocks.



CDAG staining, fluorescence in situ hybridization, macrosatellite DNA, pine marten, rDNA probe, sable, stone marten, tandemly arranged sequences, telomere repeat, yellow-throated marten, Animals, Mustelidae, Heterochromatin, In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence, Euchromatin, Carnivora, Chromosome Structures

Journal Title

Genes (Basel)

Conference Name

Journal ISSN


Volume Title



Russian Science Foundation (19-14-00034)