Cross-Sectional Association of Food Source with Food Insecurity, Dietary Diversity and Body Mass Index in Western Kenya

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Olatunji, Elizabeth 
Obonyo, Charles 
Wadende, Pamela 
Were, Vincent 
Musuva, Rosemary 

jats:pThe triple burden of malnutrition in many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) is partly a result of changing food environments and a shift from traditional diets to high-calorie Western-style diets. Exploring the relationship between food sources and food- and nutrition-related outcomes is important to understanding how changes in food environments may affect nutrition in LMICs. This study examined associations of household food source with household food insecurity, individual dietary diversity and individual body mass index in Western Kenya. Interview-administered questionnaire and anthropometric data from 493 adults living in 376 randomly-selected households were collected in 2019. Adjusted regression analyses were used to assess the association of food source with measures of food insecurity, dietary diversity and body mass index. Notably, participants that reported rearing domesticated animals for consumption (‘own livestock’) had lower odds of moderate or severe household food insecurity (odds ratio (OR) = 0.29 (95% CI: 0.09, 0.96)) and those that reported buying food from supermarkets had lower odds of moderate or severe household food insecurity (borderline significant, OR = 0.37 (95% CI: 0.14, 1.00)), increased dietary diversity scores (Poisson coefficient = 0.17 (95% CI: 0.10, 0.24)) and higher odds of achieving minimum dietary diversity (OR = 2.84 (95% CI: 1.79, 4.49)). Our findings provide insight into the relationship between food environments, dietary patterns and nutrition in Kenya, and suggest that interventions that influence household food source may impact the malnutrition burden in this context.</jats:p>

food source, nutrition, malnutrition, dietary diversity, food insecurity, food security, body mass index, BMI, Kenya, supermarket, triple burden of malnutrition
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Department of Health (via National Institute for Health Research (NIHR)) (16/137/34)