Tendon healing is adversely affected by low-grade inflammation.

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Rehak, Laura 
Khan, Wasim S 
Maffulli, Nicola 

BACKGROUND: Tendinopathy is common, presents with pain and activity limitation, and is associated with a high risk of recurrence of the injury. Tendinopathy usually occurs as a results of a disrupted healing response to a primary injury where cellular and molecular pathways lead to low grade chronic inflammation. MAIN FINDINGS: There has been a renewed interest in investigating the role of Inflammation in the pathogenesis of tendinopathy, in particular during the initial phases of the condition where it may not be clinically evident. Understanding the early and late stages of tendon injury pathogenesis would help develop new and effective treatments addressed at targeting the inflammatory pathways. CONCLUSION: This review outlines the role of low-grade Inflammation in the pathogenesis of tendinopathy, stressing the role of proinflammatory cytokines, proteolytic enzymes and growth factors, and explores how Inflammation exerts a negative influence on the process of tendon healing.

Healing, Inflammation, Proinflammatory cytokines, Tendinopathy, Humans, Inflammation, Tendinopathy, Tendon Injuries, Tendons, Wound Healing
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J Orthop Surg Res
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Springer Science and Business Media LLC