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Imbalance in Coagulation/Fibrinolysis Inhibitors Resulting in Extravascular Thrombin Generation in Gliomas of Varying Levels of Malignancy

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Wojtukiewicz, Marek Z. 
Matuszewska, Elwira 
Sulkowski, Stanislaw 
Zimnoch, Lech 


Neoplastic processes are integrally related to disturbances in the mechanisms regulating hemostatic processes. Brain tumors, including gliomas, are neoplasms associated with a significantly increased risk of thromboembolic complications, affecting 20–30% of patients. As gliomas proliferate, they cause damage to the brain tissue and vascular structures, which leads to the release of procoagulant factors into the systemic circulation, and hence systemic activation of the blood coagulation system. Hypercoagulability in cancer patients may be, at least in part, a result of the inadequate activity of coagulation inhibitors. The aim of the study was to evaluate the expression of the inhibitors of the coagulation and fibrinolysis systems (tissue factor pathway inhibitor, TFPI; tissue factor pathway inhibitor-2 TFPI-2; protein C, PC; protein S, PS, thrombomodulin, TM; plasminogen activators inhibitor, PAI-1) in gliomas of varying degrees of malignancy. Immunohistochemical studies were performed on 40 gliomas, namely on 13 lower-grade (G2) gliomas (8 astrocytomas, 5 oligodendrogliomas) and 27 high-grade gliomas (G3–12 anaplastic astrocytomas, 4 anaplastic oligodendrogliomas; G4–11 glioblastomas). A strong expression of TFPI-2, PS, TM, PAI-1 was observed in lower-grade gliomas, while an intensive color immunohistochemical (IHC) reaction for the presence of TFPI antigens was detected in higher-grade gliomas. The presence of PC antigens was found in all gliomas. Prothrombin fragment 1+2 was observed in lower- and higher-grade gliomas reflecting local activation of blood coagulation. Differences in the expression of coagulation/fibrinolysis inhibitors in the tissues of gliomas with varying degrees of malignancy may be indicative of their altered role in gliomas, going beyond that of their functions in the hemostatic system.



blood coagulation/fibrinolysis inhibitors, hemostasis, F1+2, TFPI, TFPI-2, PC, PS, thrombomodulin, PAI-1, gliomas, glial tumors

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