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Fully automated closed-loop insulin delivery in adults with type 2 diabetes: an open-label, single-center, randomized crossover trial.

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Daly, Aideen B 
Boughton, Charlotte K  ORCID logo
Nwokolo, Munachiso 
Hartnell, Sara 
Wilinska, Malgorzata E 


In adults with type 2 diabetes, the benefits of fully closed-loop insulin delivery, which does not require meal bolusing, are unclear. In an open-label, single-center, randomized crossover study, 26 adults with type 2 diabetes (7 women and 19 men; (mean ± s.d.) age, 59 ± 11 years; baseline glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), 75 ± 15 mmol mol-1 (9.0% ± 1.4%)) underwent two 8-week periods to compare the CamAPS HX fully closed-loop app with standard insulin therapy and a masked glucose sensor (control) in random order, with a 2-week to 4-week washout between periods. The primary endpoint was proportion of time in target glucose range (3.9-10.0 mmol l-1). Analysis was by intention to treat. Thirty participants were recruited between 16 December 2020 and 24 November 2021, of whom 28 were randomized to two groups (14 to closed-loop therapy first and 14 to control therapy first). Proportion of time in target glucose range (mean ± s.d.) was 66.3% ± 14.9% with closed-loop therapy versus 32.3% ± 24.7% with control therapy (mean difference, 35.3 percentage points; 95% confidence interval (CI), 28.0-42.6 percentage points; P < 0.001). Time > 10.0 mmol l-1 was 33.2% ± 14.8% with closed-loop therapy versus 67.0% ± 25.2% with control therapy (mean difference, -35.2 percentage points; 95% CI, -42.8 to -27.5 percentage points; P < 0.001). Mean glucose was lower during the closed-loop therapy period than during the control therapy period (9.2 ± 1.2 mmol l-1 versus 12.6 ± 3.0 mmol l-1, respectively; mean difference, -3.6 mmol l-1; 95% CI, -4.6 to -2.5 mmol l-1; P < 0.001). HbA1c was lower following closed-loop therapy (57 ± 9 mmol mol-1 (7.3% ± 0.8%)) than following control therapy (72 ± 13 mmol mol-1 (8.7% ± 1.2%); mean difference, -15 mmol mol-1; 95% CI, -11 to -20 mmol l-1 (mean difference, -1.4%; 95% CI, -1.0 to -1.8%); P < 0.001). Time < 3.9 mmol l-1 was similar between treatments (a median of 0.44% (interquartile range, 0.19-0.81%) during the closed-loop therapy period versus a median of 0.08% (interquartile range, 0.00-1.05%) during the control therapy period; P = 0.43). No severe hypoglycemia events occurred in either period. One treatment-related serious adverse event occurred during the closed-loop therapy period. Fully closed-loop insulin delivery improved glucose control without increasing hypoglycemia compared with standard insulin therapy and may represent a safe and efficacious method to improve outcomes in adults with type 2 diabetes. This study is registered with (NCT04701424).



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Nat Med

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Springer Science and Business Media LLC
Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust (CUH) (146281)
Dexcom supplied discounted continuous glucose monitoring devices and sensors for the study; Supported by National Institute for Health and Care Research Cambridge Biomedical Research Centre. The University of Cambridge has received salary support for MLE from the National Health Service in the East of England through the Clinical Academic Reserve