Human Genetic Disorders Resulting in Systemic Selenoprotein Deficiency.

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Selenium, a trace element fundamental to human health, is incorporated as the amino acid selenocysteine (Sec) into more than 25 proteins, referred to as selenoproteins. Human mutations in SECISBP2, SEPSECS and TRU-TCA1-1, three genes essential in the selenocysteine incorporation pathway, affect the expression of most if not all selenoproteins. Systemic selenoprotein deficiency results in a complex, multifactorial disorder, reflecting loss of selenoprotein function in specific tissues and/or long-term impaired selenoenzyme-mediated defence against oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum stress. SEPSECS mutations are associated with a predominantly neurological phenotype with progressive cerebello-cerebral atrophy. Selenoprotein deficiency due to SECISBP2 and TRU-TCA1-1 defects are characterized by abnormal circulating thyroid hormones due to lack of Sec-containing deiodinases, low serum selenium levels (low SELENOP, GPX3), with additional features (myopathy due to low SELENON; photosensitivity, hearing loss, increased adipose mass and function due to reduced antioxidant and endoplasmic reticulum stress defence) in SECISBP2 cases. Antioxidant therapy ameliorates oxidative damage in cells and tissues of patients, but its longer term benefits remain undefined. Ongoing surveillance of patients enables ascertainment of additional phenotypes which may provide further insights into the role of selenoproteins in human biological processes.

selenoprotein deficiency, SECISBP2, Sec-tRNA[Ser]Sec, SEPSECS, selenium
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Int J Mol Sci
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Wellcome Trust (210755/Z/18/Z)
NIHR Cambridge Biomedical Research Centre