The Impact of Nutrition-Based Interventions on Nutritional Status and Metabolic Health in Small Island Developing States: A Systematic Review and Narrative Synthesis.

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Augustus, Eden 
Haynes, Emily 
Murphy, Madhuvanti M 

Small island developing states (SIDS) have a high burden of nutrition-related disease associated with nutrient-poor, energy-dense diets. In response to these issues, we assessed the effectiveness of nutrition-based interventions on nutritional status (under-nutrition) and metabolic health (over-nutrition) among persons in SIDS. We included SIDS-based nutrition studies with change in nutrition status (e.g., markers of anaemia) or metabolic status (e.g., markers of glycaemia) as outcomes. The PRISMA framework was applied and MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, OARE library, Web of Science, Scopus, ASSIA, EconLit, AGORA, AGRICOLA, AGRIS, WHO-EMRO, and LILACS were searched (2000-2020). Cochrane risk of bias (ROB) and Cochrane ROBINS-I tools assessed ROB for randomised and non-randomised studies, respectively. PROSPERO registration (CRD42021236396) was undertaken. We included 50 eligible interventions, involving 37,591 participants: 14 trials reported on nutritional status, 36 on metabolic health. Effective interventions, evaluated at the individual level, took a multifaceted approach for metabolic outcomes; while nutrition outcomes utilised supplements. Most intervention types were suitable for issues related to 'over' nutrition versus 'under' nutrition. Twenty-six studies (nutrition status (six); metabolic health (twenty)) were effective (p < 0.05). With the current rise of nutrition-related public health challenges, there is a need for further development and evaluation of these and related interventions at the population level.

nutritional status, metabolic health, small island developing states
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BBSRC (BB/T008857/1)