Can active sun exposure decrease the risk of giant cell arteritis and polymyalgia rheumatica in women?

Published version
Repository DOI

Change log
de Boer, Raïssa 

OBJECTIVES: To study if active sun exposure among women affects the risk of developing GCA or PMR in a prospective cohort study with restricted latitudinal variability. METHODS: We linked the response to questions relating to sun exposure from the Melanoma Inquiry in Southern Sweden (MISS) prospective cohort study in women to the risk of developing GCA or PMR. Healthcare data were gathered from the Skåne Healthcare Register (SHR), covering all public healthcare consultations. The direct effect of active sun exposure on the risk of developing GCA or PMR was assessed using Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for covariates based on a directed acyclic graph. RESULTS: A total of 14 574 women were included in the study; 601 women were diagnosed with GCA or PMR (144 and 457, respectively) during the follow-up time. Women with moderate or high sun exposure were not less likely to develop GCA or PMR compared with women that indicated they avoided sun exposure [hazard ratio (HR) 1.2 (CI 0.9, 1.6) and 1.3 (0.9, 1.9), respectively] when adjusted for diabetes, hyperlipidaemia, hypertension, smoking, obesity and stratified by age. Similar patterns were observed when studying only GCA [HR 1.2 (CI 0.7, 2.3) and 1.3 (0.7, 2.6)] and only PMR [HR 1.3 (CI 0.9, 1.8) and 1.4 (0.9, 2.0)]. CONCLUSION: Active sun exposure did not affect the risk of developing GCA or PMR in women in a cohort with restricted latitudinal variability.

GCA, PMR, environmental risk factor, sun exposure
Journal Title
Rheumatol Adv Pract
Conference Name
Journal ISSN
Volume Title
Oxford University Press (OUP)