Parametric study on vertical void configurations for improving ventilation performance in the mid-rise apartment building
Double-loaded affordable apartments, which are commonly seen in tropical developing countries, suffer from poor cross-ventilation, particularly on the leeward side of the buildings. This study aims to parametrically evaluate closed-vertical void configurations to improve the ventilation performance of the double-loaded apartment building using the validated CFD models. The configurations include the aspect ratio of the void, pilotis size and fin size with various wind directions. The results showed that the most influential parameter for enabling natural ventilation by augmenting pressure coefficient differences on the windward and leeward sides of the building was the fin size, followed by wind direction and aspect ratio. Wind direction influenced the windward side more than the leeward side, whereas aspect ratio influenced the leeward side over the windward side. It was concluded that the mass flow rates on both sides of the building could be maximised by optimally combining the void's fin size and aspect ratio under the specific prevailing wind directions. These findings would help create sustainable design guidelines for improving natural ventilation by incorporating a closed-vertical void in the mid-rise apartment buildings in the tropics.