A cross-sectional analysis of ITN and IRS coverage in Namibia in 2013


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Authors
Allcock, Sophie H 
Young, Elizabeth H 
Sandhu, Manjinder S 
Abstract

Abstract

            Background
            Achieving vector control targets is a key step towards malaria elimination. Because of variations in reporting of progress towards vector control targets in 2013, the coverage of these vector control interventions in Namibia was assessed.
          
          
            Methods
            Data on 9846 households, representing 41,314 people, collected in the 2013 nationally-representative Namibia Demographic and Health Survey were used to explore the coverage of two vector control methods: indoor residual spraying (IRS) and insecticide-treated nets (ITNs). Regional data on Plasmodium falciparum parasite rate in those aged 2–10 years (PfPR2–10), obtained from the Malaria Atlas Project, were used to provide information on malaria transmission intensity. Poisson regression analyses were carried out exploring the relationship between household interventions and PfPR2–10, with fully adjusted models adjusting for wealth and residence type and accounting for regional and enumeration area clustering. Additionally, the coverage as a function of government intervention zones was explored and models were compared using log-likelihood ratio tests.
          
          
            Results
            Intervention coverage was greatest in the highest transmission areas (PfPR2–10 ≥ 5%), but was still below target levels of 95% coverage in these regions, with 27.6% of households covered by IRS, 32.3% with an ITN and 49.0% with at least one intervention (ITN and/or IRS). In fully adjusted models, PfPR2–10 ≥ 5% was strongly associated with IRS (RR 14.54; 95% CI 5.56–38.02; p < 0.001), ITN ownership (RR 5.70; 95% CI 2.84–11.45; p < 0.001) and ITN and/or IRS coverage (RR 5.32; 95% CI 3.09–9.16; p < 0.001).
          
          
            Conclusions
            The prevalence of IRS and ITN interventions in 2013 did not reflect the Namibian government intervention targets. As such, there is a need to include quantitative monitoring of such interventions to reliably inform intervention strategies for malaria elimination in Namibia.

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