Sodium homeostasis in the tumour microenvironment.

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Leslie, Theresa K 
James, Andrew D 
Grist, James T 

The concentration of sodium ions (Na+) is raised in solid tumours and can be measured at the cellular, tissue and patient levels. At the cellular level, the Na+ gradient across the membrane powers the transport of H+ ions and essential nutrients for normal activity. The maintenance of the Na+ gradient requires a large proportion of the cell's ATP. Na+ is a major contributor to the osmolarity of the tumour microenvironment, which affects cell volume and metabolism as well as immune function. Here, we review evidence indicating that Na+ handling is altered in tumours, explore our current understanding of the mechanisms that may underlie these alterations and consider the potential consequences for cancer progression. Dysregulated Na+ balance in tumours may open opportunities for new imaging biomarkers and re-purposing of drugs for treatment.

Channels, MRI, Microenvironment, Sodium, Transporters, Tumours, Adenosine Triphosphate, Cell Size, Homeostasis, Humans, Neoplasms, Sodium, Tumor Microenvironment
Journal Title
Biochim Biophys Acta Rev Cancer
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Elsevier BV
Cancer Research Uk (None)
Royal Society (IE150411)
Cancer Research Uk (None)
Department of Health (via National Institute for Health Research (NIHR)) (NF-SI-0515-10067)
Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust (CUH) (146281)
Cancer Research UK (via University of York) (R2010902)