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Freezing fouling from aqueous solutions of TBAB and TME clathrate hydrates

Accepted version
Peer-reviewed

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Article

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Authors

Kawaley, G 
Routh, AF 
Wilson, DI 

Abstract

Crystallisation fouling caused by cooling of aqueous solutions of 10-40 wt% tetrabutylammonium bromide (TBAB) and trimethyloethane (TME) was studied in a two-fingered deposition cell. The clathrates formed semi-solid layers of crystals on the heat transfer surfaces. DSC studies confirmed the existence of different hydration states, particularly for TBAB, which could be described reasonably well by simple models. The enthalpy of fusion measured with DSC was 50-300 J g-1 for aqueous TBAB solutions up to 60 wt% and 150-320 J g-1 for up to 80 wt% TME. Fickian diffusivities estimated using DOSY-NMR were 0.5-4 ×10-10 m2 s-1 for TBAB and 2-5 ×10-10 m2 s-1 for TME 10-50 wt% solutions. A quantitative model describing the rate of crystal layer growth based on combined heat and mass transfer control gave good agreement with experimental data and indicated that the fraction of crystals in the matrix approached 40 vol%.

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Keywords

Clathrate hydrates, Crystallisation Heat transfer, Mass transfer, Rheology Diffusion coefficients

Journal Title

Chemical Engineering Science

Conference Name

Journal ISSN

0009-2509
1873-4405

Volume Title

Publisher

Elsevier BV
Sponsorship
The work is funded by Mitsubishi Electric Research Centre Europe