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Time-Series Modeling and Forecasting of Cerebral Pressure-Flow Physiology: A Scoping Systematic Review of the Human and Animal Literature.

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Froese, Logan 
Sainbhi, Amanjyot Singh  ORCID logo
Stein, Kevin Y 


The modeling and forecasting of cerebral pressure-flow dynamics in the time-frequency domain have promising implications for veterinary and human life sciences research, enhancing clinical care by predicting cerebral blood flow (CBF)/perfusion, nutrient delivery, and intracranial pressure (ICP)/compliance behavior in advance. Despite its potential, the literature lacks coherence regarding the optimal model type, structure, data streams, and performance. This systematic scoping review comprehensively examines the current landscape of cerebral physiological time-series modeling and forecasting. It focuses on temporally resolved cerebral pressure-flow and oxygen delivery data streams obtained from invasive/non-invasive cerebral sensors. A thorough search of databases identified 88 studies for evaluation, covering diverse cerebral physiologic signals from healthy volunteers, patients with various conditions, and animal subjects. Methodologies range from traditional statistical time-series analysis to innovative machine learning algorithms. A total of 30 studies in healthy cohorts and 23 studies in patient cohorts with traumatic brain injury (TBI) concentrated on modeling CBFv and predicting ICP, respectively. Animal studies exclusively analyzed CBF/CBFv. Of the 88 studies, 65 predominantly used traditional statistical time-series analysis, with transfer function analysis (TFA), wavelet analysis, and autoregressive (AR) models being prominent. Among machine learning algorithms, support vector machine (SVM) was widely utilized, and decision trees showed promise, especially in ICP prediction. Nonlinear models and multi-input models were prevalent, emphasizing the significance of multivariate modeling and forecasting. This review clarifies knowledge gaps and sets the stage for future research to advance cerebral physiologic signal analysis, benefiting neurocritical care applications.


Peer reviewed: True

Publication status: Published


cerebral physiologic signal analysis, cerebral pressure–flow dynamics, time-series forecasting, time-series modeling, Animals, Humans, Brain Injuries, Traumatic

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Sensors (Basel)

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Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (ALLRP-576386-22, ALLRP-586244-23)