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Area deprivation and the food environment over time: A repeated cross-sectional study on takeaway outlet density and supermarket presence in Norfolk, UK, 1990-2008.

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Maguire, Eva R 


Socioeconomic disparities in the food environment are known to exist but with little understanding of change over time. This study investigated the density of takeaway food outlets and presence of supermarkets in Norfolk, UK between 1990 and 2008. Data on food retail outlet locations were collected from telephone directories and aggregated within electoral wards. Supermarket presence was not associated with area deprivation over time. Takeaway food outlet density increased overall, and was significantly higher in more deprived areas at all time points; furthermore, socioeconomic disparities in takeaway food outlet density increased across the study period. These findings add to existing evidence and help assess the need for environmental interventions to reduce disparities in the prevalence of unhealthy food outlets.



Food environment, Inequalities, Socioeconomic status, Supermarket, Takeaway food outlet, Commerce, Cross-Sectional Studies, Diet, Environment, Fast Foods, Food Supply, Humans, Poverty, Residence Characteristics, United Kingdom

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Health Place

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Elsevier BV
Wellcome Trust (087636/Z/08/Z)
Medical Research Council (MR/K023187/1)
Economic and Social Research Council (ES/G007462/1)
Funding from the British Heart Foundation, Cancer Research UK, Economic and Social Research Council, Medical Research Council, the National Institute for Health Research, (ES/G007462/1), and the Wellcome Trust, (087636/Z/08/Z), under the auspices of the UK Clinical Research Collaboration, is gratefully acknowledged.