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A Review of Road Traffic-Derived Non-Exhaust Particles: Emissions, Physicochemical Characteristics, Health Risks, and Mitigation Measures.

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Franklin, Meredith 
Green, David C 
Gustafsson, Mats 


Implementation of regulatory standards has reduced exhaust emissions of particulate matter from road traffic substantially in the developed world. However, nonexhaust particle emissions arising from the wear of brakes, tires, and the road surface, together with the resuspension of road dust, are unregulated and exceed exhaust emissions in many jurisdictions. While knowledge of the sources of nonexhaust particles is fairly good, source-specific measurements of airborne concentrations are few, and studies of the toxicology and epidemiology do not give a clear picture of the health risk posed. This paper reviews the current state of knowledge, with a strong focus on health-related research, highlighting areas where further research is an essential prerequisite for developing focused policy responses to nonexhaust particles.


Funder: National Institute for Health Research (NIHR)

Funder: Health Effects Institute

Funder: Trafikverket

Funder: Imperial College London

Funder: UK Health Security Agency

Funder: NordFoU


exposure assessment, health effects, mitigation, nonexhaust emissions, road traffic, toxicity, Air Pollutants, Dust, Environmental Monitoring, Particle Size, Particulate Matter, Vehicle Emissions

Journal Title

Environ Sci Technol

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American Chemical Society (ACS)
Medical Research Council (MR/ S0196669/1, 20192024, PUAG019)
British Heart Foundation (CH/09/002)
Robert Bosch GmbH (NE/S013342/2)
Wellcome Trust (209376/Z/17/Z)
Natural Environment Research Council (NE/S013342/2, NE/T001909/2)
National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (ES031986)