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Proton Radiation Hardness of Perovskite Tandem Photovoltaics.

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Lang, Felix 
Jošt, Marko 
Köhnen, Eike 
Al-Ashouri, Amran 


Monolithic [Cs0.05(MA0. 17FA0. 83)0.95]Pb(I0.83Br0.17)3/Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (perovskite/CIGS) tandem solar cells promise high performance and can be processed on flexible substrates, enabling cost-efficient and ultra-lightweight space photovoltaics with power-to-weight and power-to-cost ratios surpassing those of state-of-the-art III-V semiconductor-based multijunctions. However, to become a viable space technology, the full tandem stack must withstand the harsh radiation environments in space. Here, we design tailored operando and ex situ measurements to show that perovskite/CIGS cells retain over 85% of their initial efficiency even after 68 MeV proton irradiation at a dose of 2 × 1012 p+/cm2. We use photoluminescence microscopy to show that the local quasi-Fermi-level splitting of the perovskite top cell is unaffected. We identify that the efficiency losses arise primarily from increased recombination in the CIGS bottom cell and the nickel-oxide-based recombination contact. These results are corroborated by measurements of monolithic perovskite/silicon-heterojunction cells, which severely degrade to 1% of their initial efficiency due to radiation-induced recombination centers in silicon.



degradation, multijunction solar cell, perovskite, perovskite/CIGS, perovskite/silicon, perovsktite tandem, radiation hardness, radiation-induced defects, space photovoltaics, tandem solar cell

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Elsevier BV
Royal Society (UF150033)
European Research Council (756962)
Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EP/R023980/1)
EPSRC (2127077)
F.L. acknowledges financial support from the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation via the Feodor Lynen program and thanks Prof. Sir R. Friend for supporting his Fellowship at the Cavendish Laboratory. This work was supported by the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme (HYPERION, grant agreement number 756962). M.J, A.A.A., E.K., and S.A. acknowledge financial support from the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) via program “Materialforschung für die Energiewende” (grant no. 03SF0540), by the German Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy (BMWi) through the ‘PersiST’ project (Grant No. 0324037C). T.B. C.A.K. and R.S. acknowledge funding by BMWi through the speedCIGS (grant no. 0324095E) and EFFCIS project (grant no. 0324076D). D.K. and M.C. acknowledge financial support from the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs, via The Top-consortia Knowledge and Innovation (TKI) Program ‘‘Photovoltaic modules based on a p-i-n stack, manufactured on a roll-to-roll line featuring high efficiency, stability and strong market perspective’’ (PVPRESS) (TEUE118010) and “Bridging the voltage gap” (BRIGHT) (1721101). K. F. acknowledges the George and Lilian Schiff Fund, the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC), the Winton Sustainability Fellowship, and the Cambridge Trust for funding. S.D.S. acknowledges the Royal Society and Tata Group (UF150033). The authors acknowledge the EPSRC for funding (EP/R023980/1). This project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under the Marie Skłodowska-Curie grant agreement No. 841265. A.R.B. acknowledges funding from a Winton Studentship, Oppenheimer Studentship, and funding from the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) Doctoral Training Centre in Photovoltaics (CDT-PV). K.G. acknowledges the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education within the Mobilnosc Plus program (Grant No. 1603/MOB/V/2017/0).