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Identifying Patterns and Sources of Fine and Ultrafine Particulate Matter in London Using Mobile Measurements of Lung-Deposited Surface Area.

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Padilla, Lauren E 
Peters, Daniel R 
Dupuy-Todd, Megan 
Fonseca, Elizabeth R 


We performed more than a year of mobile, 1 Hz measurements of lung-deposited surface area (LDSA, the surface area of 20-400 nm diameter particles, deposited in alveolar regions of lungs) and optically assessed fine particulate matter (PM2.5), black carbon (BC), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in central London. We spatially correlated these pollutants to two urban emission sources: major roadways and restaurants. We show that optical PM2.5 is an ineffective indicator of tailpipe emissions on major roadways, where we do observe statistically higher LDSA, BC, and NO2. Additionally, we find pollutant hot spots in commercial neighborhoods with more restaurants. A low LDSA (15 μm2 cm-3) occurs in areas with fewer major roadways and restaurants, while the highest LDSA (25 μm2 cm-3) occurs in areas with more of both sources. By isolating areas that are higher in one source than the other, we demonstrate the comparable impacts of traffic and restaurants on LDSA. Ratios of hyperlocal enhancements (ΔLDSA:ΔBC and ΔLDSA:ΔNO2) are higher in commercial neighborhoods than on major roadways, further demonstrating the influence of restaurant emissions on LDSA. We demonstrate the added value of using particle surface in identifying hyperlocal patterns of health-relevant PM components, especially in areas with strong vehicular emissions where the high LDSA does not translate to high PM2.5.


Funder: Valhalla Foundation

Funder: High Meadows Foundation

Funder: Children's Investment Fund Foundation

Funder: Clean Air Fund


hyperlocal mapping, particulate matter, restaurant emissions, traffic emissions, urban air quality, Particulate Matter, Air Pollutants, Nitrogen Dioxide, London, Vehicle Emissions, Lung, Environmental Pollutants, Environmental Monitoring, Air Pollution

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Environ Sci Technol

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American Chemical Society (ACS)