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Dormancy in Breast Cancer, the Role of Autophagy, lncRNAs, miRNAs and Exosomes.

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Ishola, Tala 


Breast cancer (BC) is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in women for which numerous diagnostic and therapeutic options have been developed. Namely, the targeted treatment of BC, for the most part, relies on the expression of growth factors and hormone receptors by these cancer cells. Despite this, close to 30% of BC patients may experience relapse due to the presence of minimal residual disease (MRD) consisting of surviving disseminated tumour cells (DTCs) from the primary tumour which can colonise a secondary site. This can lead to either detectable metastasis or DTCs entering a dormant state for a prolonged period where they are undetectable. In the latter, cells can re-emerge from their dormant state due to intrinsic and microenvironmental cues leading to relapse and metastatic outgrowth. Pre- and clinical studies propose that targeting dormant DTCs may inhibit metastasis, but the choice between keeping them dormant or forcing their "awakening" is still controversial. This review will focus on cancer cells' microenvironmental cues and metabolic and molecular properties, which lead to dormancy, relapse, and metastatic latency in BC. Furthermore, we will focus on the role of autophagy, long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), miRNAs, and exosomes in influencing the induction of dormancy and awakening of dormant BC cells. In addition, we have analysed BC treatment from a viewpoint of autophagy, lncRNAs, miRNAs, and exosomes. We propose the targeted modulation of these processes and molecules as modern aspects of precision medicine for BC treatment, improving both novel and traditional BC treatment options. Understanding these pathways and processes may ultimately improve BC patient prognosis, patient survival, and treatment response.



autophagy, breast cancer, dormancy, exosomes, lncRNAs, miRNAs, treatment, Autophagy, Breast Neoplasms, Exosomes, Female, Humans, MicroRNAs, Neoplasm Recurrence, Local, RNA, Long Noncoding

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Int J Mol Sci

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