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Cultural validation and language translation of the scientific SCI exercise guidelines for use in Indonesia, Japan, Korea, and Thailand.

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Mikami, Yukio 
Tinduh, Damayanti 
Lee, KunHo 
Chotiyarnwong, Chayaporn 
van der Scheer, Jan W 


CONTEXT: Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Thailand. OBJECTIVE: To culturally validate and translate the Scientific Exercise Guidelines for Adults with Spinal Cord Injury (SEG-SCI) for use in four Asian countries. DESIGN: Systematic Review. PARTICIPANTS: N/A. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted to identify all published English- and local-language studies conducted in Indonesia, Japan, Korea, and Thailand, testing the effects of exercise training interventions on fitness and cardiometabolic health in adults with acute or chronic SCI. Protocols and results from high-quality controlled studies were compared with the SEG-SCI. Forward and backward translation processes were used to translate the guidelines into Bahasa Indonesian, Japanese, Korean and Thai languages. RESULTS: Fifteen studies met the review criteria. At least one study from each country implemented exercise prescriptions that met or exceeded the SEG-SCI. Two were controlled studies. In those two studies, relative to control conditions, participants in exercise conditions achieved significant improvements in fitness or cardiometabolic health outcomes only when the exercise intervention protocol met or exceeded the SEG-SCI. During the language translation processes, end-users confirmed that SEG-SCI language and terminology were clear. CONCLUSION: Clinical researchers in Indonesia, Japan, Korea and Thailand have implemented exercise protocols that meet or exceed the SCI-SEG. Results of high-quality studies align with the SEG-SCI recommendations. Based on this evidence, we recommend that the SEG-SCI be adopted in these countries. The cultural validation and translation of the SEG-SCI is an important step towards establishing consistent SCI exercise prescriptions in research, clinical and community settings around the world.



Cardiometabolic health, Fitness, Health promotion, Paraplegia, Physical activity, Rehabilitation, Tetraplegia, Adult, Humans, Spinal Cord Injuries, Japan, Indonesia, Thailand, Language, Exercise, Cardiovascular Diseases

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J Spinal Cord Med

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Informa UK Limited


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Funding for this project was provided by Joint Usage/Research Center of Sport for Persons with Impairments authorized by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan (grant number SP2019-01) and a Partnership Grant from the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada (grant number 895-2013-1021) for the Canadian Disability Participation Project ( JWvdS is based in The Healthcare Improvement Studies Institute (THIS Institute), University of Cambridge. THIS Institute is supported by the Health Foundation, an independent charity committed to bringing about better health and healthcare for people in the UK. Kathleen A. Martin Ginis holds, and is supported by, The Reichwald Family Southern Medical Program Chair in Preventive Medicine.