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Differential Effects of Day/Night Cues and the Circadian Clock on the Barley Transcriptome.

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The circadian clock is a complex transcriptional network that regulates gene expression in anticipation of the day/night cycle and controls agronomic traits in plants. However, in crops, how the internal clock and day/night cues affect the transcriptome remains poorly understood. We analyzed the diel and circadian leaf transcriptomes in the barley (Hordeum vulgare) cultivar 'Bowman' and derived introgression lines harboring mutations in EARLY FLOWERING3 (ELF3), LUX ARRHYTHMO1 (LUX1), and EARLY MATURITY7 (EAM7). The elf3 and lux1 mutants exhibited abolished circadian transcriptome oscillations under constant conditions, whereas eam7 maintained oscillations of ≈30% of the circadian transcriptome. However, day/night cues fully restored transcript oscillations in all three mutants and thus compensated for a disrupted oscillator in the arrhythmic barley clock mutants elf3 and lux1 Nevertheless, elf3, but not lux1, affected the phase of the diel oscillating transcriptome and thus the integration of external cues into the clock. Using dynamical modeling, we predicted a structure of the barley circadian oscillator and interactions of its individual components with day/night cues. Our findings provide a valuable resource for exploring the function and output targets of the circadian clock and for further investigations into the diel and circadian control of the barley transcriptome.



Circadian Clocks, Circadian Rhythm, Gene Expression Regulation, Plant, Hordeum, Transcriptome

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Plant Physiol

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Oxford University Press (OUP)


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Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BB/L014130/1)
Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BB/M00113X/1)