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A new permanent, low-cost, low-power SO2 camera for continuous measurement of volcanic emissions

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Wilkes, TC 
Pering, TD 
Aguilera, F 
Layana, S 
Nadeau, P 


jats:pSince its introduction to volcanology in the mid-2000 s, the SOjats:sub2</jats:sub> camera has become an important instrument for the acquisition of accurate and high time-resolution SOjats:sub2</jats:sub> emission rates, aiding in hazard assessment and volcanological research. However, with the exception of a few locations (Stromboli, Etna, Kīlauea), hitherto the majority of measurements have been made on discrete field campaigns, which provide only brief snapshots into a volcano’s activity. Here, we present the development of a new, low-cost, low-power SOjats:sub2</jats:sub> camera for permanent deployment on volcanoes, facilitating long-term, quasi-continuous (daylight hours only) measurements. We then discuss preliminary datasets from Lascar and Kīlauea volcanoes, where instruments are now in continuous operation. Further proliferation of such instrumentation has the potential to greatly improve our understanding of the transient nature of volcanic activity, as well as aiding volcano monitoring/eruption forecasting.</jats:p>


Peer reviewed: True

Acknowledgements: We would like to thank two reviewers whose comments have greatly improved the manuscript. TW would like to thank Jonas Gliß, Benjamin Esse and Mathew Varnam for their development of, and subsequent support with, their valuable Python packages. We also acknowledge the support of Silvana Hidalgo and colleagues at IGEPN for their work on the installation of an instrument on El Reventador, Ecuador. Any use of trade, firm, or product names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.


volcanology, sulphur dioxide, ultraviolet camera, remote sensing, raspberry pi

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Frontiers in Earth Science

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Frontiers Media SA